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Chapter 9, Diseases of the Respiratory System

Primary function of the respiratory System

ventilation and respiration

Process of Breathing

The lungs, along with the kidneys, have a major metabolic function: the maintenance of acid-based (pH) balance of the blood.

Common cold etiology

The common cold is a group of minor illnesses that can be caused by almost 200 different viruses. Mycoplasma and other atypical organisms that are more like bacteria than viruses.

Common cold treatment

Antibiotics are of little value in treating viral infections

Common cold Prevention

viruses are not always clearly defined

Sinusitis etiology

Sinusitis can be caused by either viral, fungal, or more commonly bacterial infections that travel to the sinuses from teh nose, often after the patient has been infected by a common cold.

Sinusitis treatment

can include saline nasal spray, corticosteroid nasal sprays, broad-spectrum antibiotics, oral corticosteroid, antihistamines and decongestants. Also immunotheropy and sinusotomy.

Deviated Septum S&S

narrowing and obstruction of the air passage. Slightly increased t3endency to develop sinusitis

Deviated Septum Treatment

can be straightened surgically to repair significant obstruction or for cosmetic reasons.

Nasal Polyps

distended mucous membranes protruding into the nasal cavity.


Nose bleed

Epistaxix Etiologic

direct trauma to the nose, picking the nose and the presence of a foreign body. Also systemic disorders, hypertension, hemophilia, and leukemia

Tumors fo the Larynx S&S

Dysphonia is usually the only symptom of a tumor on the larynx

Laryngeal cancer

it is the most common site for head and neck tumors


airless or collapsed state of the pulmonary tissue

Atelectasis etiology

obstruction of the bronchial tree; failure to breath deeply postoperatively, or prolonged inactivity, also can induce the collapse of pulmonary tissue

Pulmonary embolism etiology

stasis of blood flow from immobility, injury to a vessel, predisposition to clot formation, increases the risk of embolism formation.

Pneumonia treatment

organism-specific antibiotics are prescribed for bacterial pneumonia.

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