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Human Diseases and Conditions, Chapter 9

Chapter 9, Diseases of the Respiratory System
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Primary function of the respiratory System
ventilation and respiration
Process of Breathing
The lungs, along with the kidneys, have a major metabolic function: the maintenance of acid-based (pH) balance of the blood.
Common cold etiology
The common cold is a group of minor illnesses that can be caused by almost 200 different viruses. Mycoplasma and other atypical organisms that are more like bacteria than viruses.
Common cold treatment
Antibiotics are of little value in treating viral infections
Common cold Prevention
viruses are not always clearly defined
Sinusitis etiology
Sinusitis can be caused by either viral, fungal, or more commonly bacterial infections that travel to the sinuses from teh nose, often after the patient has been infected by a common cold.
Sinusitis treatment
can include saline nasal spray, corticosteroid nasal sprays, broad-spectrum antibiotics, oral corticosteroid, antihistamines and decongestants. Also immunotheropy and sinusotomy.
Deviated Septum S&S
narrowing and obstruction of the air passage. Slightly increased t3endency to develop sinusitis
Deviated Septum Treatment
can be straightened surgically to repair significant obstruction or for cosmetic reasons.
Nasal Polyps
distended mucous membranes protruding into the nasal cavity.
Epistaxix
Nose bleed
Epistaxix Etiologic
direct trauma to the nose, picking the nose and the presence of a foreign body. Also systemic disorders, hypertension, hemophilia, and leukemia
Tumors fo the Larynx S&S
Dysphonia is usually the only symptom of a tumor on the larynx
Laryngeal cancer
it is the most common site for head and neck tumors
Atelectasis
airless or collapsed state of the pulmonary tissue
Atelectasis etiology
obstruction of the bronchial tree; failure to breath deeply postoperatively, or prolonged inactivity, also can induce the collapse of pulmonary tissue
Pulmonary embolism etiology
stasis of blood flow from immobility, injury to a vessel, predisposition to clot formation, increases the risk of embolism formation.
Pneumonia treatment
organism-specific antibiotics are prescribed for bacterial pneumonia.