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58 terms

APUSH Ch. 41 vocab

American Pageant 13th Edition #brohanson
STUDY
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New Democrats
an ideologically centrist faction within the Democratic Party that emerged after the victory of Republican George H. W. Bush in the 1988 presidential election. They are identified with centrist social/cultural/pluralist positions and neoliberal fiscal values
Brady Bill
1993; it was passed to place restrictions on buying a gun
Branch Davidians
a religious cult that gathered weapons and holed themselves up in a Waco, TX compound which was eventually set on fire. Everyone inside, including women and children, either were killed by their leaders, committed suicide, or died from the fire
Columbine High School
1999; a massacre that was a school shooting which occurred on April 20, 1999-- sparked debate over gun control laws, the availability of firearms within the United States and gun violence involving youths
Welfare Reform Bill
1994; Republicans passed this which rolled back welfare handouts and forced able-bodied people to get off taxpayer money and go to work
Contract with America
1994; Newt Gingrich (repub.) created a very successful deal with America to reduce the deficit and cut welfare-state programs
Hopwood v. Texas
1996; first successful legal challenge to a university's affirmative action policy in student admissions since the Bakke case in 1978--four white plaintiffs who had been rejected from The University of Texas School of Law challenged the institution's admissions policy on equal protection grounds and prevailed
World Trade Organization (WTO)
1995; Clinton supported this in order to lower tariffs and trade barriers internationally
Kosovo
a region in southeastern Europe; was an armed conflict in Kosovo that lasted from 28 February 1998 until 11 June 1999. It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and NATO
Whitewater
1992; a scandal that said Clinton and his wife had invested and lost money in the Whitewater development project
September 11, 2001
militant Islamic radicals attacked America. The radicals hijacked passenger planes and used the planes, and hostages, as guided missiles--Two planes slammed into the World Trade Center towers in New York City. The towers caught fire, then came down. Third plane slammed into Pentagon and fourth was thought to be aiming for the White House or Capitol building, but heroic passengers took back the plane before it crashed in a Pennsylvania field
World Trade Center
1993; terrorists drove a truck bomb underneath it and detonated it. The parking garage was gutted, but the buildings stood up until the two planes hit it in 2001
Al-Qaeda
radical Islamic terrorist sect led by Osama bin Laden
Taliban
an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan
USA - Patriot Act
2001; signed by George H. W. Bush that gave the government extended surveillance rights
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
Intelligence at the time suggested that Hussein had and was actively making this
Enron and Worldcom
2001; a scandal that eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas--attributed as the biggest audit failure
Gratz v. Bollinger
2003; a United States Supreme Court case regarding the University of Michigan undergraduate affirmative action admissions policy
Grutter v. Bollinger
2003; a landmark case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Michigan Law School. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, writing for the majority in a 5-4 decision, ruled that the University of Michigan Law School had a compelling interest in promoting class diversity
UNMOVIC
1999; United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission was used to replace the former United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) and continue with the latter's mandate to disarm Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction, and to operate a system of ongoing monitoring and verification to check Iraq's compliance with its obligations not to reacquire the same weapons prohibited to it by the Security Council
International Atomic Energy Agency
an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons (established in 1957)
Kyoto Treaty
1997; made to limit greenhouse emissions, and speaking of new oil exploration in Alaska
"culture wars"
issues with abortion, gun politics, separation of church and state, privacy, recreational drug use, homosexuality, censorship issues
"unfunded mandates"
Republicans passed a law restricting this where the federal government mandates the states to do something, but provides no money to do it
globalization
the process of extending social relations across world-space. Such extensions arise from the movements of people, things and ideas
"ethnic cleansing"
the process or policy of eliminating unwanted ethnic or religious groups by deportation, forcible displacement, mass murder, or by threats of such acts, with the intent of creating a territory inhabited by people of a homogeneous or pure ethnicity, religion, culture, and history
"red" and "blue" states
states of the United States whose residents predominantly vote for the Republican Party (red) or Democratic Party (blue) presidential candidates
"a-symmetrical warfare"
a conflict in which the resources of two belligerents differ in essence and in the struggle, interact and attempt to exploit each other's characteristic weaknesses
"axis of evil"
when Bush lumped Iraq and Saddam into this and believed it helped and harbored terrorists
William Clinton
an American democratic politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001; he leaned towards "being in the center"
George H. W. Bush
an American republican politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1992 and continued Reagan's policies and Reaganomics
J. Danforth Quayle
served as the 44th Vice President of the United States, serving with President George H. W. Bush
H. Ross Perot
he rose as a significant third party candidate. A tech-company billionaire who spent his own money campaigning, he ran on one main issue: the U.S. must get the debt under control--he caused the split votes letting Democrats win
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
second female justice (after Sandra Day O'Connor) and the first Jewish female justice
Carol Mosely-Braun
an American politician and lawyer who represented Illinois in the United States Senate from 1993 to 1999. She was the first and to date only African-American woman elected to the United States Senate
Donna Shalala
she served for eight years as Secretary of Health and Human Services under President Bill Clinton
Henry Cisneros
an American politician and businessman. He came into the national spotlight as the mayor of San Antonio, Texas from 1981 to 1989--the second Hispanic mayor of a major American city. A Democrat, Cisneros served as the 10th Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in the administration of President Bill Clinton
Ron Brown
he was the United States Secretary of Commerce, serving during the first term of President Bill Clinton. He was the first African American to hold this position
Janet Reno
the first woman to serve as Attorney General
Hillary Clinton
wife of President Bill Clinton, she was also the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001 and also headed the committee of health-care reform
Newt Gingrich
an American republican politician that developed the "Contract with America", became Speaker of the House
Robert Dole
ran for 1996 presidential election as the Republican nominee-- from the WWII generation and his campaign was uninspiring. To the younger baby boom generation, electing Dole would seem to be moving backward
John McCain
ran for the Republican presidential nomination in 2000 but lost a heated primary season contest to George W. Bush
Madeleine Albright
first woman to become the United States Secretary of State. She was nominated by US President Bill Clinton--Clinton and her worked unsuccessfully to broker another Middle East peace agreement
Monica Lewinsky
an American woman with whom United States President Bill Clinton admitted to having had an "improper relationship" while she worked at the White House in 1995 and 1996
Kenneth Starr
an American lawyer and educational administrator who has also been a federal judge. He is best known for his controversial investigation of figures during the Clinton administration
William Rehnquist
an American lawyer, jurist, and political figure who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States
Ralph Nader
the third "Green Party" nominee that consisted mostly of environmentalists and extreme liberals--hurt the Democrat votes this time
Al Gore
nominated by the Democrats in 2000 presidential election. Gore had a Clinton paradox—the good was that he could lay claim to the prosperity of the Clinton years, the bad was that aligning too close with Clinton also aligned with his scandals
George W. Bush
an American politician and businessman who was the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009--very conservative
Richard Cheney
an American politician and businessman who was the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, under President George W. Bush
James Jeffords
a former U.S. Senator from Vermont. Sworn into the Senate in 1989, he served as a Republican until 2001, when he left the party to become an Independent and began caucusing with the Democrats
Osama bin Laden
leader of the Al-Qaeda who was responsible for majority of the terrorist attacks
Colin Powell
was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U.S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first African American to serve in that position
Saddam Hussein
the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003
John Ashcroft
an American attorney and politician who served as the 79th U.S. Attorney General (2001-05), in the George W. Bush Administration during the war on terror
Arnold Schwarzenegger
an Austrian and American former professional bodybuilder, actor, producer, director, businessman, investor, and politician. Schwarzenegger served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011
John Kerry
an American politician who is the 68th and current United States Secretary of State and was the presidential nominee of the Democratic Party in the 2004 Presidential Election but lost to incumbent George W. Bush