PC705 Module 3: Gastrointestional, Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreatic Disorders
Terms in this set (40)
lack of desire to eat despite physiologic stimuli that would normally produce hunger; Nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and psychologic distress.
forceful emptying of stomach and intestinal contents through the mouth; Usually preceded by nausea and retching.
hypersalivation and tachycardia are associated symptoms
tachycardia, tachypnea, and sweating accompany; copious salivation, increased gastric motility and relaxation of the upper and lower esophageal sphincters are mediated by the Parasympathetic nervous system.
difficult or infrequent defecation for at least 3 months; Straining can cause hemorrhoids or thrombus with pain, bleeding and itching & anal fissures
increase in the frequency of defecation and the fluid content, volume and weight of feces. Can be acute or chronic. May cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalance (hyponatremia, hypokalemia), metabolic acidosis, and weight loss.
presenting symptom of a number of GI diseases and can be acute or chronic; Sharp, dull, or colicky pain. Organs are sensitive to stretching and distention, which activate nerve endings in both hollow and solid structures.
Upper GI bleeding:
in esophagus, stomach or duodenum; frank, bright red bleeding in`emesis or dark grainy digested blood (coffee grounds) in stool
Lower GI bleeding
small intestine, colon, or rectum; caused by polyps, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, cancer, vascular ectasias, or hemorrhoids
slow, chronic blood loss, not obvious
Distention and spasm of the esophageal muscles during eating or drinking may cause a mild or severe stabbing pain at the level of obstruction. Discomfort occurring 2 to 4 seconds after swallowing is associated
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD):
Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus;
S&S of GERD
heartburn, chronic cough, asthma attacks, and laryngitis. Upper abd. pain usually occurs within 1 hour of eating and can be relapsing and remitting. Symptoms can worsen if the individual lies down or intra-abd pressure
The protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm and into the thorax. Often asymptomatic; Symptoms include heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, and epigastric pain..
narrowing or blocking of the opening b/n the stomach and the duodenum.
Intestinal Obstruction and Ileus:
Any condition that prevents normal flow of chyme through the intestinal lumen or failure of normal intestinal motility in the absence of an obstructing lesion (ileus).
Acute inflammatory of the gastric mucosa. Acute-vague abdominal discomfort, epigastric tenderness, and bleeding.
Peptic Ulcer Disease:
break in the protective mucosal lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. True ulcers extend through the muscularis mucosae and damage blood vessels, causing hemorrhage or perforating the gastrointestinal wall.
occurs with greater frequency than other types of peptic ulcers. Chronic intermittent pain in the epigastric area. Pain begins 30 minutes to 2 hrs after eating, when the stomach is empty. Pain may occur in the middle of the night and disappear by the morning. Pain is relieved rapidly by ingestion of food or antacids.
Ulcers of the stomach. The pattern of pain, food, and relief is common, but the pain occurs immediately after eating. Cause more anorexia, vomiting, and weight loss than duodenal ulcers.
Stress-related Mucosal Disease (Stress Ulcer, Ischemic Ulcer, Cushing Ulcer):
Bleeding that occurs more readily with the presence of coagulopathy. Other symptoms may not be present. The bleeding may be slight or, if a small vessel is perforated, amount to hundreds of milliliters. Seldom become chronic
Inflammation of vermiform due to obstruction by fecalith, obstruction of lumen
S&S of Appendicitis
Pain in periumbilical area that moves to RLQ, N/VD, Fever, LLQ tenderness, inflammation
Functional bowel syndrome with no specific structural or biochemical or clear known cause
Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue, BMI >30
Presences of out-pouching herniation of the colon, frequent C/D or both, leads to diverticulitis
osmotic shift of water in the lumen/ diarrhea; loss of normal pyloric emptying of the stomach into the small bowel d/t surgery Tx: frequent small meals
Early Dumping Syndrome
Rapid gastric dumping that begins 10-20 mins after eating
Late Dumping Syndrome
Rapid gastric dumping that occurs 1-2 hours after eating, least common
Chronic inflammatory disease of mucosa of rectum and colon where abscesses come to together to form ulcers; lower abd pain, bloody diarrhea
Chronic inflammation of all layers of intestinal walls, forms granulomas, intermittent bouts, RLQ pain/mass, anemia may occur
gallstones; chronic may form thickened gallbladder wall; Pigmented or Cholesterol
acute inflammation of the gallbladder wall; 90% of people with this will have gallstones and obstruction of bile duct will occur related to gallstones, may led to infection; S&S severe RUQ pain, may radiate to back, usually right after a high fat meal
inflammation of the pancreas - mild or severe, may involve both execrine and endocrine, may lead to autodigestion of the pancreas from the enzymes
any protrusion into the colon lumen that can cause occult bleeding and abd pain
Hepatitis from crowded, unsanitary conditions/food and water contamination; S&S jaundice, RUQ pain, malaise, anorexia, nausea, low grade fever; supportive tx
Hepatitis from needle stick, sexual contact, transfusions, dialysis,overseas travel or perinatal (mother/fetus); S&S asymptomatic or, rash, arthralgia, arthritis, angioedema, serum sickness, glomerular nephritis, jaundice
Hepatitis transmitted via IV drug use, most common blood borne infection in the US; S&S (early) asymptomatic/ mild symptoms, fever, fatigue, dark urine, clay colored stool, abd pain, loss of appetite, N/V, joint pain, jaundice, 50-80% cases are chronic
green/yellow staining of the tissue by bilirubin, a sign of impaired metabolism, characteristic sign of liver disease or hemolysis; types include prehepatic, hepatic, and posthepatic
usually a harmless condition lasting no longer than 2 weeks, yellowing of skin/eyes, resulted from immature hepatic system