There are __________ valves located between the atria and ventricles.
Heart rate: During sleep may drop ________ bpm
Heart rate: bradycardia - __________ bpm
Heart rate: Normal adult range
A localized weakening of blood vessel which may rupture.
intermittent chest pain, usually short duration.
Largest artery in the body which collects blood from the left ventricle.
There are 2 semi-lunar valves: _______________ between the left ventricle and aorta.
Irregularity of heartbeat.
A smaller artery that branches off from the main artery.
Aorta: Aorta divides into arteries, arteries divide into smaller arteries called____________.
Abnormalities of the heart: hardening and thickening of the artery walls causing loss of elasticity, due to plaque build-up. If the CAD (coronary Artery) is affected and blockage becomes total, then the heart muscle dies from myocardial infarction.
Carries blood from the heart to body tissues and organs.
Abnormal condition of hardening of the arteries. (plaque)
The "right & left" ________ are the upper chambers which receive blood returning to the heart.
produces the P wave = "depolarization" of _______________ that will lead to contraction of the atria.
___________________ is obscured by QRS complex.
Heart chambers: ____________ are pouch like projections which expand from the atria.
Abnormalities of the heart: tumours are rare but the most common is a ______________ composed of mucous connective tissue.
Structure with two cusps through which blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Mitral valve.
slow heart rate
- Aorta: ____________ are the site where the exchange of nutrients, electrolytes, gas, and waste products take place - Aorta: the arterioles divide into the smallest of the vessels called _____________.
Smallest blood vessel that joins arterioles to venules.
Enlargement of the heart.
cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides
Which 4 tests are included in a lipid assessment? (2ml serum, red/sst)
CK, AST, Potassium
which 3 tests require no haemolysis? (2ml serum, red/sst)
congestive heart failure
Failure of the heart to pump required amount of blood to the tissues and organs.
coronary artery disease
CAD, any disease which alters the blood flow of the coronary artery.
coronary care unit (CCU)
Hospital intensive care unit which specializes in heart patients.
The relaxation phase of the heart.
Heart rate: ____ sound occurs during ventricular relaxation when semi-lunar (pulmonary |& aortic valves) close.
A graphic record that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart.
- Abnormalities of the heart: foreign material that is circulating but may get lodged. - Abnormalities of the heart: When a thrombus travels through the vascular system it is called ______________.
Abnormalities of the heart: an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and valves, it can be caused by bacteria, or by thrombi formation. (Conditions like rheumatic fever and valve problems are predisposing factors.)
- Serous membrane that lines the chambers and valves of the heart. - The wall of the heart: "inside layer" thin layer of the endothelium which lines the inside chambers of the heart & valves.
- The outermost layer of the heart. - The wall of the heart: "outer layer" which is visceral layer of the pericardium
Quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially in the heart, causing ineffectual cardiac contractions.
A hollow muscular organ that pumps blood through the arteries, capillaries and veins.
______________ control the one-way flow of blood through the heart.
A small, portable ECG monitor that assesses heart and pulse activity as the patient engages in daily routine.
Elevated blood pressure
Heart chambers: a thin wall between the right and left ventricles so blood from one side never mixes with blood from the other side.
The _______________ is the last step of pulmonary circulation.
The ____________ of the heart is a high-pressure pump that pumps oxygenated blood to the body tissue.
Heart sounds: ______ sound occurs during ventricular contraction when the atrium-ventricle (cuspid valves are closing).
The heart lies in the thoracic (chest cavity) within the ______________ > (tissues & organs that form a sternum between the lungs.)
The ________ or known as (bicuspid valve) between the left atrium and left ventricle. (one of the 2 AV valves)
Abnormalities of the heart: turbulent blood flow as a result of damaged valves, narrowed arteries.
Circulatory blockage of the myocardial muscle causing damage to that part of the heart.
- Muscular layer of the heart. - The wall of the heart: "middle layer" of cardiac muscle (majority of the heart)
Abnormalities of the heart: tumours are rare but the most common is a benign myxona composed of mucous connective tissue.
An electrical device that controls the beating of the heart by a rhythmic series of electrical discharges.
Abnormalities of the heart: inflammation of the membranous sac surrounding the heart
Sac which encloses the heart.
Inflammation of the vein.
electrocardiogram: Between cycles muscle fibres remain _________________ and there are no detectable changes so the pen moves along to baseline.
Carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
_________________ passes through the "right atrium valve" into the "right ventricle" and through the "pulmonary valve" (semi-lunar valve) into the "pulmonary artery" or "pulmonary trunk" going to the lungs to pick up "oxygen" and get rid of CO2
There are 2 semi-lunar valves: ________________ between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk.
Carries oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs.
pulmonary veins, left atrium
In the lungs, the blood is oxygenated. The blood returns to the heart through the ____________________ into the ______________.
The blood pressure wave that travels through the arteries as the ventricles contract.
____________________ - beginning of ventricular "depolarization" to the end of ventricular "repolarization"
_______________ = depolarizarion of ventricular fibres that will lead to "contraction" of the ventricular walls.
Abnormalities of the heart: inflammation of heart muscle valves and surrounding membrane as delayed complication or URT (upper respiratory track) with hemolytic streptococci.
The ___________ of the heart is a low-pressure pump that pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
The ________________ pumps the blood through the pulmonary semi lunar valve into the pulmonary artery, then into the lungs.
___________________ - the time ventricular fibres are fully "depolarized"
P-Wave: When the ___________ triggers a cardiac impulse the atrial fibres "depolarize" producing an electrical charge
Muscular layer which divides the right and left sides of the heart.
AST test also known as...
Heart chambers: ___________ are grooves which externally mark the boundaries between the 4 chambers.
superior and inferior vena cava
Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium though the ___________________________.
- A circulatory "loop" where oxygenated blood is carried to the rest of the body tissues and cells and deoxygenated blood is returned. - Superior &inferior Vena Cava receive "deoxygenated blood" from the body and drain into the "right atrium" of the heart... at this point it enters the "pulmonary circulation path"
- During "cardiac cycle" pressure within the heart chambers rises and falls and these changes "open & close" the valves. - Contraction phase of the heart.
- Abnormalities of the heart: a blood clot - lodged in and obstructing a vessel - Blood clot.
- Blood travels through the __________________ into the right ventricle. - Structure with three cusps located between right atrium and the right ventricle. - The _________________ between the right atrium and right ventricle. (one of the 2 AV valves)
Enlargement of veins (usually of the legs) due to valvular damage.
Chemicals which expand blood vessels.
Carries blood to the heart from the body organs and tissues.
The "right & left" __________ are the lower chambers which receive blood from the upper chambers.
Aorta: Capillaries join to form _____________, these in turn form larger veins carrying the blood back to the "superior Vena cava & Inferior Vena cava"
enlargement of the veins due to improperly functioning valves