Cardiovascular System

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100
Heart rate:
tachycardia - __________bpm
2 (AV) antrioventricular
There are __________ valves located between the atria and ventricles.
45-50
Heart rate:
During sleep may drop ________ bpm
60
Heart rate:
bradycardia - __________ bpm
60-100
Heart rate:
Normal adult range
aneurysm
A localized weakening of blood vessel which may rupture.
angina
intermittent chest pain, usually short duration.
aorta
Largest artery in the body which collects blood from the left ventricle.
aortic valve
There are 2 semi-lunar valves:
_______________ between the left ventricle and aorta.
arrythmia
Irregularity of heartbeat.
arteriole
A smaller artery that branches off from the main artery.
arterioles
Aorta:
Aorta divides into arteries, arteries divide into smaller arteries called____________.
arteriosclerosis
Abnormalities of the heart:
hardening and thickening of the artery walls causing loss of elasticity, due to plaque build-up. If the CAD (coronary Artery) is affected and blockage becomes total, then the heart muscle dies from myocardial infarction.
artery
Carries blood from the heart to body tissues and organs.
atherosclerosis
Abnormal condition of hardening of the arteries. (plaque)
atria
The "right & left" ________ are the upper chambers which receive blood returning to the heart.
atrial fibres
produces the P wave = "depolarization" of _______________ that will lead to contraction of the atria.
atrial repolarization
___________________ is obscured by QRS complex.
auricles
Heart chambers:
____________ are pouch like projections which expand from the atria.
benign myxona
Abnormalities of the heart:
tumours are rare but the most common is a ______________ composed of mucous connective tissue.
bicuspid valve
Structure with two cusps through which blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Mitral valve.
Blood pressure
BP
bradycardia
slow heart rate
capillaries
- Aorta:
____________ are the site where the exchange of nutrients, electrolytes, gas, and waste products take place
- Aorta:
the arterioles divide into the smallest of the vessels called _____________.
capillary
Smallest blood vessel that joins arterioles to venules.
cardiomegaly
Enlargement of the heart.
cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides
Which 4 tests are included in a lipid assessment?
(2ml serum, red/sst)
CK, AST, Potassium
which 3 tests require no haemolysis?
(2ml serum, red/sst)
congestive heart failure
Failure of the heart to pump required amount of blood to the tissues and organs.
coronary artery disease
CAD, any disease which alters the blood flow of the coronary artery.
coronary care unit (CCU)
Hospital intensive care unit which specializes in heart patients.
creatine kinase
CK
diastole
The relaxation phase of the heart.
dupp
Heart rate:
____ sound occurs during ventricular relaxation when semi-lunar (pulmonary |& aortic valves) close.
electrocardiogram
A graphic record that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart.
embolus
- Abnormalities of the heart:
foreign material that is circulating but may get lodged.
- Abnormalities of the heart:
When a thrombus travels through the vascular system it is called ______________.
endocarditis
Abnormalities of the heart:
an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and valves, it can be caused by bacteria, or by thrombi formation. (Conditions like rheumatic fever and valve problems are predisposing factors.)
endocardium
- Serous membrane that lines the chambers and valves of the heart.
- The wall of the heart:
"inside layer" thin layer of the endothelium which lines the inside chambers of the heart & valves.
epicardium
- The outermost layer of the heart.
- The wall of the heart:
"outer layer" which is visceral layer of the pericardium
fibrillation
Quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially in the heart, causing ineffectual cardiac contractions.
heart
A hollow muscular organ that pumps blood through the arteries, capillaries and veins.
heart valves
______________ control the one-way flow of blood through the heart.
holter monitor
A small, portable ECG monitor that assesses heart and pulse activity as the patient engages in daily routine.
hypertension
Elevated blood pressure
interventricular septum
Heart chambers:
a thin wall between the right and left ventricles so blood from one side never mixes with blood from the other side.
left atrium
The _______________ is the last step of pulmonary circulation.
left side
The ____________ of the heart is a high-pressure pump that pumps oxygenated blood to the body tissue.
lubb
Heart sounds:
______ sound occurs during ventricular contraction when the atrium-ventricle (cuspid valves are closing).
mediastinum
The heart lies in the thoracic (chest cavity) within the ______________ > (tissues & organs that form a sternum between the lungs.)
mitral valve
The ________ or known as (bicuspid valve) between the left atrium and left ventricle. (one of the 2 AV valves)
murmur
Abnormalities of the heart:
turbulent blood flow as a result of damaged valves, narrowed arteries.
myocardial infarction
Circulatory blockage of the myocardial muscle causing damage to that part of the heart.
myocardium
- Muscular layer of the heart.
- The wall of the heart:
"middle layer" of cardiac muscle (majority of the heart)
oncology
Abnormalities of the heart:
tumours are rare but the most common is a benign myxona composed of mucous connective tissue.
pacemaker
An electrical device that controls the beating of the heart by a rhythmic series of electrical discharges.
pericarditis
Abnormalities of the heart:
inflammation of the membranous sac surrounding the heart
pericardium
Sac which encloses the heart.
phlebitis
Inflammation of the vein.
polarized
electrocardiogram:
Between cycles muscle fibres remain _________________ and there are no detectable changes so the pen moves along to baseline.
pulmonary artery
Carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
pulmonary circulation
_________________ passes through the "right atrium valve" into the "right ventricle" and through the "pulmonary valve" (semi-lunar valve) into the "pulmonary artery" or "pulmonary trunk" going to the lungs to pick up "oxygen" and get rid of CO2
pulmonary valve
There are 2 semi-lunar valves:
________________ between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk.
pulmonary vein
Carries oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs.
pulmonary veins, left atrium
In the lungs, the blood is oxygenated. The blood returns to the heart through the ____________________ into the ______________.
pulse
The blood pressure wave that travels through the arteries as the ventricles contract.
q-t segment
____________________ - beginning of ventricular "depolarization" to the end of ventricular "repolarization"
QRS complex
_______________ = depolarizarion of ventricular fibres that will lead to "contraction" of the ventricular walls.
rheumatic fever
Abnormalities of the heart:
inflammation of heart muscle valves and surrounding membrane as delayed complication or URT (upper respiratory track) with hemolytic streptococci.
right side
The ___________ of the heart is a low-pressure pump that pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
right ventricle
The ________________ pumps the blood through the pulmonary semi lunar valve into the pulmonary artery, then into the lungs.
s-t segment
___________________ - the time ventricular fibres are fully "depolarized"
SA node
P-Wave:
When the ___________ triggers a cardiac impulse the atrial fibres "depolarize" producing an electrical charge
septum
Muscular layer which divides the right and left sides of the heart.
SGOT
AST test also known as...
sulci
Heart chambers:
___________ are grooves which externally mark the boundaries between the 4 chambers.
superior and inferior vena cava
Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium though the ___________________________.
systemic circulation
- A circulatory "loop" where oxygenated blood is carried to the rest of the body tissues and cells and deoxygenated blood is returned.
- Superior &inferior Vena Cava receive "deoxygenated blood" from the body and drain into the "right atrium" of the heart... at this point it enters the "pulmonary circulation path"
systole
- During "cardiac cycle" pressure within the heart chambers rises and falls and these changes "open & close" the valves.
- Contraction phase of the heart.
T wave
_____________ = electrical change occuring as ventricular muscle fibres "repolarize" slowly.
tachycardia
A rapid heart rate.
thrombus
- Abnormalities of the heart:
a blood clot - lodged in and obstructing a vessel
- Blood clot.
tricuspid valve
- Blood travels through the __________________ into the right ventricle.
- Structure with three cusps located between right atrium and the right ventricle.
- The _________________ between the right atrium and right ventricle. (one of the 2 AV valves)
varicose veins
Enlargement of veins (usually of the legs) due to valvular damage.
vasodilator
Chemicals which expand blood vessels.
vein
Carries blood to the heart from the body organs and tissues.
ventricles
The "right & left" __________ are the lower chambers which receive blood from the upper chambers.
venules
Aorta:
Capillaries join to form _____________, these in turn form larger veins carrying the blood back to the "superior Vena cava & Inferior Vena cava"
vericose veins
enlargement of the veins due to improperly functioning valves