Haematic and Lymphatic
Terms in this set (167)
blood composed of liquid plasma and cellular elements
blood which has had the coagulation system activated and forms a semi-solid state.
non-cellular portion of blood which still contains all coagulant proteins.
non-cellular portion of blood left after coagulation.
blood which has the fibrin removed.
production of blood cells.
red blood cell
formation of red blood cells.
protein RBC responsible for carrying oxygen. Requires iron for proper formation.
results when there is a reduction in the number of circulating RBC, or, in the Hb content. A symptom of various diseases.
volume of packed RBCs, as a percentage of whole blood.
decrease in platelet number
CBC (complete blood count)
a set of tests that include all WBC, RBC and platelet measurements.
destruction of a clot
the system regulating formation and removal of blood clots in the body.
a hereditary disorder in which there is an impairment of the blood clotting mechanism.
malignant proliferation of WBC
decrease in the number of WBC
WBCs which normally contain granules (neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil) and their precursors.
markedly phagocytic granulocyte.
Granulocyte involved in allergic reactions.
granulocyte which releases histamines in allergic reactions.
very immature granulocyte.
markedly phagocytic agranulocyte.
agranulocyte whose main function is to protect the body in immunologic responses.
activity of ingesting foreign material.
of long duration
condition which is expected to cause the death of the patient.
referring to bone marrow.
first recognizable early cell in the bone marrow.
tumour of the lymph tissue.
the blood that flows in the vascular system (circulation)
the layers of WBCs and PLTs which appears after whole blood has settled out.
an immature RBC that still has bits of RNA in it.
the study of form and structure of cells and tissue.
erythrocytes sedimentation rate
packed cell volume
mean cell volume
mean cell Hb
mean cell Hb concentration
AB, Ab, ab
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
acute lymphatic leukemia
acute myelogenous leukemia
antigen presenting cell
activated partial thromboplastin time
complete blood count
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
chronic myelogenous leukemia
disseminated intravascular coagulation
differential count (WBC)
deep veins thrombosis
eosinophil (type of WBC)
human immunodeficiency virus
natural killer cell
partial thromboplastin time
red blood cell
systemic lupus erythematosus
white blood cell
abnormal accumulation of fluids in the intercerllular spaces
enlarged tender nodes
a malignant disease primary of the lymph nodes but it may spread to the spleen, GI tract, liver or bone marrow
an immune response to something that normally does not trigger a reaction.
auto immune disease
failure of the body to accurately distinguish "self" from "non-self" so an immune response is triggered by "self" - ie. myasthenia gravis, vasculitis, ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura), RA and SLE
kaposi sarcoma and PCP
2 other diseases associated with AIDS are ______________________________
The HIV virus attacks the immune system which becomes weakened and allows opportunistic infections which do not normally affect healthy individuals to occur
an abnormal increase in the number of circulating RBC's
a serious life-threatening bloodstream infection
a decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood cause be a decrease in RBC's or a problem with hemoglobin content. There are many types of anemia but symptoms are common including dyspnea, weakness, tachycardia, pallor and hypertension.
the most common type of anemia resulting from decreased intake, increased demand or the inability to properly absorb iron.
increased and premature destruction of RBC's, commonly resulting in jaundice.
anemia due to chronic or acute blood loss
types of anemia:
a decrease of all 3 cell lines associated with bone marrow failure caused by radiation, a virus or medications
folic acid deficiency
types of anemia:
insufficient folic acid intake causing decreased production and life span
types of anemia:
low levels of vitamin B12 or lack of intrinsic factor in the stomach, which helps absorption of B12
sickle cell anemia
types of anemia:
a genetic disorder in people of African descent where RBC's change shape when oxygen is low and then cannot move freely in capillaries. This causes severe pain, internal bleeding and organ damage.
cells, structures and functions
hematic/lymphatic: These systems share common ___________________________
viruses and bacteria
Blood is the source of certain immune cells that locate, identify and destroy disease causing agents (pathogens) such as ________________.
lymph vessels and blood vessels
immune cells rely on ___________________ to deliver their protective benefits to the entire body.
Immune cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) also used lymph structures (the spleen and nodes) to provide temporary or permanent __________________.
The ________________ operates in close association with blood returning lymph and immune substances back to the circulatory system for redelivery to the entire body.
tissue fluid, lymphatic capillary
lymph is essentially ______________ that has entered the ____________________.
blood plasma, plasma proteins
Tissue fluid originates from _____________ and has much the same composition (nutrients, gases and hormones) but not ______________.
occur in groups or chains along the paths of the larger lymphatic vessels
the bone marrow releases lymphocytes into circulation and the thymus processes these undifferentiated lymphs into T cells (ie. they become immunocompetent)
primary functions of nodes are filtering harmful particles from lymph and immune surveillance provided by _______________ and _____________________ "stationed" in the lymph nodes
note: the _______ filters blood but is NOT an organ of the lymphatic system.
- the largest lymphatic organ
- filters debris and foreign particles such as bacteria
- destroy's old RBC's
- Acts as a reservoir for healthy RBC's and platelets to be placed into circulation when needed (for example when oxygen concentration is low)
- masses of lymphatic tissue in the pharynx which acts as a filter for the upper respiratory structures
palatine, pharyngeal, lingual
3 sets of tonsils
structure of blood
composed of cellular and a liquid portion which can be separated by centrifugation.
- The clear straw-coloured liquid portion of blood
- approx. ________ water
water, other solutes and protein
plasma contains ________________________
since blood in our bodies has not clotted, the liquid portion is _________________
RBC's (erythrocytes), WBC's (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes)
Plasma cellular portion contains ___________________
When centrifuged the WBC's and platelets will form a small layer between the RBC's and plasma called ___________________
The clear straw-coloured portion of clotted blood
serum, clotting factors
Plasma contains clotting factors (blood has no clotted) but serum does not, so.... ______________ + _______________ = plasma
The total volume of blood in our bodies is about ___ litres or __________ % of body weight
production (formation and maturation of blood cells)
red bone marrow
blood cells are formed in the ____________________ of the skull, ribs, sternum, vertebrae and pelvis of adults
platelets aka. ___________________
- the smallest blood cell
- it has no nucleus
Formed when a megakaryocytic (a very large cell in the bone marrow) fragments
platelet plug, blood clot
main function is to form a "__________________" to initiate _________________ formation (hemostasis)
plateletes life span
biconcave discs, no nucleus
Mature RBC's are ________________ with ____________ (lose it as they mature)
lightly immature RBC's are called _________________.
time from blast cell to mature
__________________ in RBC's gives blood its colour & also transports oxygen.
oxygen carrying compacity
The # of RBC's affects the _________________________ of the blood.
An RBC lives for about ___________________
an RBC lives for about 120 days. When old, it ruptures and releases ________________
- Hemoglobin breaks down into _________________
- _________________ is an iron compound which returns to the bone marrow to be reused in making new cells.
____________________ phagocytize the damaged RBC's primarily in the liver and spleen.
- larger than RBC's
- Nucleated cells that attack pathogens and foreign substances by _________________
WBC's can leave bloodstream to search and destroy in a process called ________________.
increased WBC = __________________
decreased WBC = _________________
granulocytes & agranulocytes
2 categories of WBC
- do not contain granules in their cytoplasm
- 2 kinds - lymphocytes (T cells and B cells and NK cells) monocytes
the study of blood
big dark blue nucleus - smallest WBC
lymphocytes life span
lymphocytes provide ____________
lymphocytes produce ______________
B cells mature in the _____________
T cells mature in the ____________
lymphocytes are _________ of WBC (percentage)
- The largest of all white blood cells - 5% of white blood cells
- grey-blue cytoplasm
- The largest of all white blood cells - _______ of white blood cells (percentage)
- grey-blue cytoplasm
monocytes have a ________________________ cytoplasm (colour)
weeks to months
- phagocytize large particles (worn cells and bacteria)
- life span - ______________
- after days in the peripheral blood they move into the body tissues and transform into __________________.
contain granules in their cytoplasm
neutrophils, basophils, eosinphils
3 kinds of granulocytes
- nucleus has 3-4 lobes
- phagocytize's bacteria
neutrophil life span about
neutrophil - most numerous WBC. approx _______ (percentage)
neutrophil contains ________ granules (colour)
- nucleus has 2 lobes
- contains orange-red granules
eosinophil contains _____________ granules (colour)
eosinophil life span
nucleus has 2 lobes
- dark purple granules
- release heparin (an anticoagulant) and histamine
basophils have ______________ granules (colour)
basophils life span
basophils are ____ of WBC's (percentage)
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura