26 terms

The Digestive System

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Nasal cavity
Hollow area inside the nose
Tongue
Manipulates food for chewing and swallowing; a taste organ
Esophagus
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Liver
Largest organ inside of the body; produces bile to chemically break down fats.
Gall bladder
An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine.
Stomach
Large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
Pancreas
A large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestines and also produces insulin to regulate blood sugar.
Large intestines
A bigger length of tubing that absorbs the water that we drink
Small intestines
Organ where most chemical digestion and absorption takes place.
Anus
Terminal opening of the digestive tract through which feces are discharged
Inscisor
Flat edge teeth used to slice and cut parts of food.
Canine
Pointed teeth used to piercing and tearing food.
Premolar
One of the types of back teeth, used for crushing and grinding food.
Molar
Furthest back in the jaw, used for crushing and grinding food.
Epiglottis
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering during swallowing.
Microvilli
Projections that increase the cell's surface area
Villi
Increase surface area (mostly for digestion), contains microvilli.
Intestinal fold
The folds within the intestines that increase surface area, contains many villi.
Nucleus
Control center of the cell
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Part of the endoplasmic reticulum that contains enzymes used for all sorts of processes
Mitochondrion
Bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA.
Golgi aparatus
The packaging and distribution center of the cell.
Artery
A blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood.
Vein
A blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood.
Bolus
A term used to describe food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva.
Rectum
Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus