RCM History 4
Terms in this set (87)
One line of music, unaccompanied. The first Gregorian chants were of this texture
Unmeasured prose rhythm
Music with no bar lines, no metrical pulse and flows freely and follows the text
The earliest form of notation associated with chant. The notes are represented with squares and each square indicates one pitch/note. The notes are relative.
Syllabic text setting
One note per syllable.
Neumatic text setting
Several notes per vowel
Melismatic text setting
Many notes per vowel
A solo singer (priest) says the words then the choir answers with a respond/verse
Sung between alternating choirs who respond back and forth
Song sung on special occasions as important figures ascend the steps of a church.
Earliest scale systems e.g. lydian, ionian, dorian etc
More than one voice, when two or more melodies are played or sung simultaneiously
Tenor sings melody in very long notes with upper voices moving freely
Voices move at approximately the same speed
"Fixed voice." A preexisting melody that is used as the basis for a polyphonic vocal work
Polyphonic section of a chant with both voices written in discant style. Other chants sometimes "borrowed"
A low voice which sings fragments of Gregorian chants with held notes
Several texts are sung simultaneously
A constantly recurring melodic fragment
Medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines
polyphonic vocal genre with a sacred text
French polyphonic song set to either courtly or popular poetry
Aristocratic poet musicians in 12th and 13th centuries in the north of France who tried to find/invent new kinds of music
Aristocratic poet musicians in 12th and 13th centuries in the South of France who were more respected and held jobs in courts
Song structure in which every verse (strophe) of the text is sung to the same musical tune but might not have the same lyrics
Early dance from the Middle Ages with a stately character, elaborate body movements, and a couple's dance
"new music", developed by Philippe de Vitry, rhythmic innovations including duple subdivision of the beat, forms of French poetry popular in Ars Nova are ballad (story), rondeau (love, regular rhyme scheme), and virelai (observations about village life
a courtly love song, circle dance. The structure was A-B-a-A-a-b-A-B
A performance practice where notes are raised or lowered to avoid awkward intervals
Chansonnier du roy
"King's songbook", a collection of dance pieces from the late 13th century which contained troubadour, trouvere songs and eight dances
two or more voices (or parts) elaborate the same melody simultaneously, often the result of improvisation
The use of many notes and harmonies foreign to the key
Renaissance polyphonic style in which the motives or subjects move from line to line or voice to voice within the texture of the composition, often overlapping each other
All voices move in the same rhythm.
unaccompanied melody set to roman catholic words
a male singer with a voice above that of a tenor
a strummed string instrument
the use of musical devices to illustrate the text
The prayers with texts that remain the same throughout the year. The prayers are the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
The prayers with texts that change depending on the church calendar. The prayers are the Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offertory
1600 - 1750 This style is characterized by a lot of ornamentation, basso continuo and application of the doctrine of the affections.
Instruments that play the chords indicated by numbers
A Baroque set of dances including the allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue
A German dance with an anacrusis in duple meter and is moderately fast
A French running dance in triple meter. It is a lively and active dance
A Spanish dance which used to be a wild dance of greeting between sailors and wives but is now a slow stately dance in triple meter
a very lively Celtic dance in 6/8 or 12/8 meter
Numbers indicating the chords with the melody improvised on top.
music that has two sections (AB)
Rounded binary form
form with two sections, in which the second ends with a return to material from the first, each section is usually repeated. (ABA^1)
3 part form. The piece divides into 3 parts of which the 3rd is an exact repeat, or almost so, of the first part (ABA)
a short melody in the bass that is constantly repeated
the text of an opera or oratorio
the Baroque practice of sudden changes in dynamics, as opposed to a gradual increase or decrease in volume
One main melody accompanied by chords
A theory that arose during the Baroque period that prescribed certain musical methods and figures for summoning or portraying individual emotions.
a male singer who was castrated before puberty and retains a soprano or alto voice
A serious Italian opera
style devised by Claudio Monteverdi to portray anger and warlike actions, by quickly spoken syllables or in a measured string tremolo
a play that is mostly sung, with costumes, scenery, action, and music
a self-contained composition for solo voice, usually with instrumental accompaniment and usually found within the context of an opera, oratorio or cantata
recitative accompanied only by basso continuo and sung in a speechlike style
Style in which each voice exactly imitates the previous voice at a fixed distance.
a hymn tune associated with German Protestantism that is entitled for everyone to sing. It does not have many leaps and is for SATB.
A sacred or secular multi movement vocal work
short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
the group of instruments that function as soloists in a concerto grosso; 3 or 4 soloists
the larger of the 2 ensembles in the Baroque Concerto Grosso, all others not playing the solo
a piece of music for orchestra featuring a small group of soloists, called the concertino, contrasting with the larger group, called the ripieno
form that features a short, recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
A sailors dance that became a court dance in triple meter which is used as an opening for events
Music for a small instrumental ensemble with one instrument per line of music
4 movements of classical chamber & symphonic music: Allegro, Slow, Minuet trio, Allegro
the first section of sonata-allegro form, usually containing contrasting themes and keys
The second major division of the sonata-allegro form. It is based upon the themes in the exposition and elaborates upon them by making new combinations of the figures and phrases while moving through a series of foreign keys.
In sonata-allegro form, it is the final presentation of the original theme group, first presented in the exposition. Usually it is entirely in the tonic key of the composition.
the closing section of a musical composition
the title given to the three prominent compers of the classical era: Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.
French term for a collection of dances
In the chapel style, vocal music unaccompanied by instruments
A sustained pitch, usually the lowest note over which other notes play
male character sung by female in opera
musical subject derived from tonic triad in upward motion
emerged in classical practice in concertos where the orchestra first presents the theme group
emerged in Baroque but still practiced throughout the classical, romantic, and 20th century. Portions of structures of arias and concertos. Solo passages demonstrating virtuosity in improvisatory spontaneous style
Occurs in Symphonies (especially that of Haydn) where the second theme group is a transposition of the first theme.
solo vocal declamatory recitative accompanied by the orchestra
A three-voice compositional form of the 18th century, usually short, which may or may not be accompanied.