67 terms

Biology EOC 2013 - List II

Hey Brilliant Biologist!! Here's a partial list of the words you'll want to know for your Biology EOC. We'll review these more in the next two weeks. For now, spend some time getting to know them and play some of the games! Great activity while you're preparing to DOMINATE this EOC and get Great than GOOD!!!
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metric system
a system of measurement based on the number 10
microscope
an instrument that makes small objects look larger
compound light microscope
microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image
electron microscope
microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen
cell culture
group of cells grown in a nutrient solution from a single original cell
cell fractrionation
cells are split a part
Biology
the science that studies living organisms
Cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms. Shown is a Eukaryotic Cell.
sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
asexual reproducgtion
Budding (one organism)
metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism carries out its life processes
Homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
evolve
to develop and change gradually over time
spontaneous generation
the idea that living things come from nonliving things
controlled experiment
An experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time.
independant/manipulated varible
The varible that is deliberatly changes
responding varible/dependant
what are you measuring in response to what you are changing
theory
Well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Science
an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
observation
the act of making and recording a measurement
data
evidence; information gathered from observations
inference
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
Theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
population growth
the increasing and decreasing of a population
exponential growth
growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
limiting factors
environmental factors that restrict population growth ex disease, crowding, food, predators, disasters
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support
symbiosis
relationship in which two species live closely together
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
parasitism
Symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (1 is helped 1 is harmed)
Biodiversity
The measure of the number of different species in a specific area
Biodiversity is counted by
trapping and baiting and counting # of species
biotic factors
living things in an ecosystem
abiotic
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
food chains
The linkage of who feeds on whom
food web
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
Ecological/Energy pyramid
Triangle Diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
decreases as it moves up
Threatens biodiversity
habitat destruction, exotic species, overharvesting
ecological fragmentation
form of habitat degragation- breaking a habitat into smaller habitats
exotic species
organisms that are not native to a particular area
how do we maintain biodiversity
conserve natural areas such as smoky mountains, restore habitats, avoid buying products of over harvesting (tusks)
plasma membrane
the outer membrane of a cell, composed of a bilayer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded and controls what goes in and out of the cell
cell wall
strong layer (made of cellulose) around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
ribosomes
site of protein synthesis found on ER or free
Endoplasmic reticulum
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
vacuoles
saclike structures that store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
lysosomes
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
chloroplasts
organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
cytoskeleton
the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus, network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
mitochondria
Predator
An organism that obtains nutrients from other organism
Population
All members of the same species living together at the same time in the same area
Prey
An organism that is hunrted and or eaten by another organism
Heterotroph
An organism that cannot produce its own food
Heterozygous
A cell or organism that has two different alleles for a particular trait (Aa)
Homzygous
A cell or organism that has two of the same alleles for a particular trait (AA and aa)
Homogenous
A type of mixture in which the different parts are blended evenly so that the mixture is the same throughout
Hypothesis
A statement that can be tested scientifically through experiments
pH
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution based on a scaled from zero to fourteen. It effects protein structure and can shut down enzymes.
Theory
An explanation for some naturally occurring event developed from extensive observations, experimentation, and reasoning
Collaboration
Scientists working together
Species
A group of the same kind of organisms that can mate and produce offspring that can reproduce
Ecosystem
All the living and nonliving things that interact with each other in an environment
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