Terms in this set (75)
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Made of two parts: the brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The pathway that runs to and from the CNS. It is made of two parts: Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System.
Part of the PNS- fibers that run toward the CNS
Part of the PNS- fibers that run away from the CNS
Somatic Nervous System
Interacts with the external environment by controlling voluntary movements of striated muscles
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Interacts with the internal environment and is responsible for the "fight or flight" response. It controls the involuntary functions including movement of smooth muscles, digestion, blood circulation, and breathing. The ANS has two parts: Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Controls arousal mechanisms such as blood circulation, pupil dilation, and threat and fear response. Lie detector tests rely on the premise that lying activates the sympathetic nervous system.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Responsible for recuperation after arousal by doing things like lowering heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.
The spine consists of an inner core of gray matter and an outer covering of white matter that go to and from the brain.
Cell bodies and dendrites
Nerve fibers, axon bundles, and myelin sheathing
Is an extension of the spine. It has developed from the base to the front.
Myelencephalon (Medulla), Metencephalon, Reticular formation
Myelencephalon (Marrow Brain)
Medulla- Contains nuclei of the cranial nerves; Mainly controls reflexes, but also controls sleep, attention and movement. Damage to the medulla is usually fatal and drugs which impair functions of the medulla are also life threatening.
Metencephalon (After Brain)
Contains the pons (means bridge, connects brain parts to spine) and cerebellum (controls muscle coordination, balance, and posture)
The base is located in the hindbrain, and the rest is located in the midbrain (Tegmentum). Considered the oldest part of the brain. A diffuse network of neurons within the core of the brainstem receiving sensory input which plays a role in sleep and arousal (Controls alertness) and reflexes (involuntary muscles such as the heart)
Consists of the Tectum & Tegmentum
(Roof) consists of four bump-like structures on the dorsal surface of the brain stem. The two superior colliculi are involved in visual processing and the two inferior colliculi which relay auditory stimuli. Controls vision and hearing.
(Floor) lies directly below the tectum. It houses the rest of the reticular formation. It is also involved in the sensorimotor system and the analgesic effect of opiates.
Divided into Diencephalon ("Between" brain - Thalamus and hypothalamus) and Telencephalon ("End" brain- the rest of the forebrain)
Connections between brain and spine
Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Main "switchboard"- Channels sensory information to the cerebral cortex
Controls ANS biological motivations, such as hunger and thirst and the pituitary gland. It integrates all the major functions of the ANS and also integrates the endocrine system.
The "master gland" of the endocrine/hormone system. Controlled by the hypothalamus. It is involved in the regulation of hormones in the body. Hormones have numerous effects throughout life, which are characterized as organizational or activational.
A group of structures around the brainstem controlling motivated and emotional behaviors - involved in the four F's (fleeing, feeding, fighting and fornicating) and anxiety and aggression.
Involved in memory, specifically transferring short-term memory into long-term memory. New neurons can form in the hippocampus of the adult mammalian brain
Controls emotional reactions such as fear and anger.
Links areas in the brain dealing with emotion and decisions- a structure playing an important component of pain.
The outer half-inch of the cerebral hemispheres. It's the seat of sensory and intellectual functions and is split into lobes. 90% is neocortex. 10% has fewer than 6 layers and is more primitive.
New layers in brain, 6 layered cortex.
Controls speech, reasoning, and problem solving. Houses Broca's area for speech.
Responsible for vision
Responsible for the somatosensory system
Responsible for hearing. Also includes Wernicke's area, which is related to speech.
Bumps are seen on the cortex surface
Fissures are seen on the cortex surface
Tough connective tissues that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord
Chambers filled with cerebrospinal fluid that insulate the brain from shock
Controls visual reflexes- appears as bumps on the brainstem
Control auditory reflexes- appears as bumps on the brainstem
Control large, voluntary muscle movements. their degeneration is related to motor dysfunction in Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases
Cortical Association Areas
Some areas on the cortex that correspond to certain functions. The larger the area, the more sensitive and highly accessed is the corresponding function. Damage to particular areas would result in certain dysfunction.
Inability to organize movement
Difficulty processing sensory information
Inability to read
Inability to write
Caused by damage to Broca's area of the brain, which is located in the left frontal lobe. Someone with this aphasia can understand speech, but has difficulty speaking (often speaking slowly and laboriously and omitting words)
cause by damage to Wernike's area of the brain, which is located in the left temporal lobe. Someone with this aphasia can speak but no longer understands how to correctly choose words. The person's speech is fluent but nonsensical.
Overeating with no satiation of hunger. It leads to obesity. Damage to the ventromedial region of the hypothalamus has produced this in animals.
Incredible rage easily provoked when the cerebral cortex is removed.
Used to implant electrodes into animals' brains in experiments
Blooming and Pruning
Children go through this process in which neural pathways are connected and then some are allowed to die out.
Organizational hormones in bloodstream that determine whether a mammal will be male
Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone
- regulates the development of ovum and trigger ovulation in females. In males, it regulates the development of sperm cells.
stimulates milk production
causes water retention
trigger by the pituitary gland, the thyroid stimulating hormone
EEGs- Measure brain wave patterns and have made it possible to study waking and sleeping states. Has two distinct components Non-REM and REM
Consists of 4 stages of sleep. take about a half a hour to pass through stages
Stage 0 Sleep
Prelude to sleep. neutral synchrony appear in the brain. A person becomes relaxed and drowsy and closes his eyes.
low amplitude, fast frequency alpha waves (Stage 0)
Stage 1 Sleep
Lasts up to 5 minutes. Eyes begin to roll; alpha waves give way to irregular theta waves. You may experience fantastic images, resembling hallucinations- sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus. You may have the sensation of falling.
lower in amplitude and slower in frequency
Stage 2 Sleep
Theta wave stage; Brain experiences sleep spindles; Sleep spindles: fast frequency burst of brain activity. Also marked by muscle tension, decline in heart rate, respiration and temperature
fast frequency burst of brain activity
Stage 3 Sleep
Take place 30 after fall asleep
Fewer sleep spindle occur
Delta waves appear
high amplitude low frequency
Stage 4 Sleep
Delta waves occur more than 50% of the time. These delta waves demarcate the deepest levels of sleep when heart rate, respiration, temperature and blood flow to the brain are reduced and growth hormones are secreted. A person roused from this stage will be groggy and confused.
Rapid Eye Movement aka Paradoxical sleep- Heart rate rises, breathing becomes rapid and irregular, and every half minute or so your eyes dart around in a momentary burst of activity behind closed lids. Genitals become aroused. Muscle tone decreases to point of paralysis, with sudden twitches. Aprox. 20% of sleep time. Interspersed with non-REM sleep every 30 to 40 minutes. Dreams are experienced in this sleep. Fast frequency, low amplitude beta waves that characterize waking states.
Beta waves that characterize waking states.`
Occurs when people are deprived of REM sleep. They will compensate by spending more time in REM sleep later in the night.