Adopted in 1876. Provides for the separation of powers and incorporates its bill of right directly into the text of the constitution.
Offices of US government in Texas
TX has a Governor, elects two US Senators and 32 US Representatives.
Legislature of Texas
It has two chambers. House of Rep. has 150 members and the Senate has 31.Speaker leads the house and Lt. Governor leads state Senate.
Executive Branch of Government in Texas
Consist of Governor, Lt. Gov., Comptroller of Public Accounts, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, Agricultural Commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, and the Secretary of State.
County government in Texas
Each county run by commissioners court. 4 commissioners and 1 judge all elected from voters in the county. Less legal power than municipalities. Counties have eminent domain power
Texas has two courts of last resort. TX Supreme court: hears civil cases TX court of Criminal Appeals
4 million years ago to 500 CE. Study of the ancient world focuses of first farmers and first civilizations
The Middle Ages
500 - 1400 Includes the Byzantine civilization, the rise of Islam, civilizations of the Americas, the Vikings, the feudal system, the Crusades, Genghis Khan and China, the African Kingdoms and the Hundred Years' War.
Age of Discovery
The time that is referred to when the first Europeans engaged in exploration between the 15th century through the 17th century. Colonization led to the rise of colonial empires, trade routes, transfer of plants, animals, foods, human populations, spread of communicable diseases, sharing cultures between Eastern and Western hemispheres. 1400-1700
Revolution and Industry
1700 - 1900. Includes the Russian Empire, the Manchu dynasty in China, the period of Enlightenment in Europe, birth of America, French Revolution, Napoleonic era, British Empire, the American Civil War
struggle for equal rights for women, World War I, Russian Revolution, the Great Depression, rise of fascism, revolution in China, Israel vs Palestine, the Cold War, the space race, Korean and Vietnam wars, globalization
located in the region of Yucatán Peninsula that reached its peak in 700 CE and produced magnificent ceremonial cities with pyramids, a sophisticated mathematical and calendar system, hieroglyphic writing, and fine sculpture, painting, and ceramics, astronomy, engineering.
Olmecs, Toltecs, Zapotecs
highly sophisticated civilizations. Olmecs began around 1200 BCE. Created ceremonial calendar and had stone pyramids on which they preformed religious ceremonies. Developed a partly alphabetic writing system
highest degree of development in Mexico. Centralized government, king, large army. Skilled builders, engineers, accomplished astronomers, and mathematicians. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
meaning - children of the sun. located along Andes mountains, network of rodes and had a well developed political system. Cuzco, the capital empire
Indian tribe first to interact with English settlers. Skilled hunters, gathers, and trappers who were adept at farming. Wore clothing of animal skins and lived in wigwams. Shared their knowledge of agriculture, which most likely saved the settlers lives
located in eastern Great Lakes region of upper New York. Hunted and fished. Had a matrilineal line of decent, women did most of the farming to support the community. Developed the Iroquois Confederation to discourage war among the groups and to provide for a common defense
seminoles and Muscogee Creeks
two tribes lived in the southeast United States in open bark covered houses called chickees. excellent hunters and planters. Known best for their struggle against Spanish and English settlers mid 1800s
Southeast, one of the most advances tribes, with domed houses and deerskin and rabbit for clothing. Known on the continent for their pottery and basketry
Ppl lived in pueblos and wore clothes made of wool and woven cotton. Able to produce drought-resistant corn and squash, foundation of their diet. Survived the Spanish conquest and colonization period.
Famous leader Geronimo, lived in wickiups, which were made of bark, grass, and branches. Wore cotton clothing and are skilled hunters and gathers. Lived in the Southwest
Lived in Southwest, excellent weapon makers, weavers, and silversmiths. Lived in Hogans, round homes built of forked sticks, and wore rabbit skin clothes
Columbus sailed the ocean blue.
Spaniards established the first successful settlement in North America in St Augustine FL
The English Colonies
thirteen colonies. English established colonies for several reasons; founded with the idea that ppl would have a substantial autonomy and liberty in regards to political and religious life.
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; large farms "plantations" exploited workers. Economy based on tobacco, cotton, indigo, and rice were grown.
Pennsylvania, Delaware, New York, and New Jersey. Economy based on farming, shipping, fishing and trading.
New England Colonies
English colonies that became the states of Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire. Economy based on farming and very small industries such as fishing, limber, crafts
(1607) First English Colony; established by the London Company
intervened and saved John Smith's life. Married John Rolfe, a tobacco farmer form the same colony. Virginia
Fled England to avoid religious persecution
(1620) drawn up by the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower. Pledged to consult one another to make decisions and to act by the will of the majority. Agreement to establish a political body and to give it the power to act for the good of the colony. First types of government in the North America
(1623) Established fishing village in New Hampshire. First group leader
(1638) Second group leader to found NH called Exeter, eventually became a royal colony
(1623) Dutch founded colony. King George II of England took over territory and gave it to his brother, the Duke of York. The duke then gave the territory as a proprietary grant to Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley. 1702, New Jersey became an English colony
(1624) area was part of New Amsterdam, a possession of the Dutch government, 1674 British took control of the territory, and in 1685 New York officially became a royal colony
a _____ in which people elect representatives to make laws and conduct government. The ability to elect lawmakers and included the notion that concepts and ideas can be deliberated and discussed by both legislators and the people who elected them
Virginia House of Burgesses
first colonial assembly of elected representatives from Virginia. July 1619
(1775) No taxation without representation- Colonies thought they were treated unfair. Began in Lexington and Concord
Seven Years War
In America known as French and Indian War
French and Indian War
War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Boston Tea Party
event in protest of British taxation system. "No taxation without representation"
elected as the commender of the American forces, decked war on Britain
The Declaration of Independence
pronounced the colonies free and independent states. Consists of a preamble followed by three parts. First part stresses natural unalienable rights and liberties that belong to all ppl from birth. Second part consists of a list of specific grievances and injustices committed by Britain. Third part announces the colonies as the United States of America. Foundation to establish equal rights for all ppl.
silversmith who rode to Lexington to warn militiamen of the British attack
Battle of Bunker Hill
in 1775, first major battle of the Revolution. British lost more troops but ultimately defect the colonial troops
(1781) the French joined to support the Americans, defeated British forces in this city
Treaty of Paris
(1783) (1783) peace agreement that officially ended the revolutionary war and established Britian's formal recognition of the US
Articles of the Confederation
agreement among the 13 founding states that legally established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as the first constitution. Drafted by the first Continental Congress in 1776-77. Established new government, w/ limited power, that was composed of representatives. Congress could not declare war or raise and army, they could ask the states for money or soldiers, but it was up to the states to agree to provide them
_____ convention was held in Philadelphia 1787 were new government was formed. The _____ allowed for stronger national government, w/ a president, courts, and taxing powers. The republic defined by the _____ was composed of three branches of government: the executive, judicial, legislative; with a system of checks and balances to regulate each branch.
War of 1812
broke out due to British trade restrictions between the US and France.
First president to ask Congress to declare war
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions
(1823) An American foreign policy opposing European countries interference in the Western hemisphere. "America for Americans"
(1803) Doubled size of US, opened up land for expansion; Jefferson changed interpretation from strict to loose
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory on "Voyage of Discovery"
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
President Andrew Jackson
declared removal of Indians who remained East of the Mississippi violently. Indians concentrated in what is now OK.
War between the US and Mexico over the annexation of Texas and a border dispute; As a result of this War, the US annexed California, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas
United State admitted Texas to the Union
The Dutch brought the first African slaves to the US
1862, Abraham Lincoln granted freedom to slaves in the rebellious states
American Civil War
broke out for economic and idealogical differences between the North and the South, dealing with the issue of Slavery
Gives African-American full citizenship
Grants voting right to black men
centered around how to count slaves in deciding the number of representatives for the House of Representatives and the amount of taxa to be paid. Southerns wanted slaves to be counted for the purposes of representation but not taxation. Northerns wanted the opposite. The ____, the two sides agreed to count 3/5 of the slave pop for both taxation and representation.
"_____ of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North were free states and all South were slave states.
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) Republic of Texas gave up lands that it claimed present day New Mexico and received $10 million to pay debt to Mexico (4) slave trade abolished in DC, and (5) new Fugitive Slave Act; most controversial part and caused many abolitionists to increase their efforts against slavery
Fugitive Slave Act
made any federal official who did not arrest a runaway slave liable to pay a fine.
(1854) opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, allowed settlers to determine via popular sovereignty if they allowed slavery within their boundaries.
Notion that the people of a territory should determine if they want to be a slave state or a free state.
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
(1856) an incident in which abolitionist John Brown and seven other men murdered pro-slavery Kansans. Events were so savage many referred to the territory as "Bleeding Kansas"
Dred Scott v. Sandford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that living in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. Slaves were declared property
1860-1865. The North increasingly became more urban and industrialized; they received more immigrants who provided the necessary labor. The South received few immigrants, thus making slavery the foundation for their economy
excessive devotion to local interests and customs. Primary cause of the Civil War
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln, a strong ant-slavery candidate was ___ as the president of the United States over John C. Breckinridge. Three states seceded from the Union, the creation of the Confederate States of America.
President of the Confederate States of America
11 southern slave states, _______ from the Union and formed the Confederacy.
Battle of Gettysburg
1863, this three day battle was the bloodiest of the entire Civil War, ended in a Union victory, and is considered the turning point of the war
General Robert E. Lee
Confederate General and commander of Confederate Army, known for strategic genius. Was against secession but very loyal to his state of Virginia. In 1865 Ended the war with surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Union
General Ulysses S. Grant
commander of the Union
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves; denied newly freed slaves from free assembly, regulated black labor, denied the right to vote, serve on a jury, or testify against whites.
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1860s that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages. 1919
Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, 1933
freed all slaves without compensation to slave owners
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) legalized segregation, allowing "separate but equal facilities" for blacks and whites
(1908) in reaction to where race riots were held, meeting was called to discuss racial injustice. Through the meeting the NAACP was heralded, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Civil Right Movement
a drive for equal treatment of african americans
1947 first African American to play major league baseball
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954 outlawed segregation in public schools
Montgomery Bus Boycott
began December 1955 when Rosa Parks, well know NAACP activist, in Alabama refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man as Jim Crow laws required. She was arrested and sent to jail
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Baptist minister, leader of the Montgomery Improvement Association, lead boycott of Montgomery bus company. Which then lead to the Supreme Court ruling bus segregation unconstitutional. Went on the become most prominent figure of the civil rights movement. Assassinated in Memphis TN in 1968.
August 28, 1963
"I Have A Dream" speech
John F. Kennedy
proposed new civil rights laws and programs to help millions of Americans living in poverty. Assassinated in Dallas 1963
Civil Rights Act
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment. The law was passed during a period of great strength for the civil rights movement, and President Lyndon Johnson persuaded many reluctant members of Congress to support the law.
Mexican American equivalent of the Civil Rights Movement for Mexican Americans. The Movement included student demonstrations to press for bilingual education, restoration of land grants, the farm workers' rights, and political rights
United Farm Workers
Founded by Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta; fought for better working conditions and fair compensation for agricultural workers
guaranteed women the right to vote in 1920
Equal Pay Act
1963 law that required both men and women to receive equal pay for equal work
Equal Credit Act
1974, prohibits sex discrimination in the granting of financial credit
Pregnancy Discrimination Act
Act that prohibits discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions
because the placement of American Indian children in boarding schools is an example of ______, which is the adaptation of an individual or group to new cultural surroundings
refers to the spread of culture through the physical movement or migration of a people from one location to another.
refers to the spread of culture through the physical movement or migration of a people from one location to another.
New England colonies
one of the three regions of the original 13 colonies. Consisted of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire. Economy was farming and small industry (fishing, lumber, crafts)
one of the three regions of the original 13 colonies. Consisted of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Economy was farming, shipping, fishing and trading.
one of the three regions of the original 13 colonies. Consisted of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Economy was tobacco, rice, indigo and cotton.
first English colony established in 1607
colony established by Puritans fleeing persecution in England in 1620
the idea that people can vote for their own lawmakers and concepts & ideas can be deliberated and discussed by both legislators and the people who elected them.
one of the earliest agreements to establish a political body and to give that political body the power to act for the good of the colony. Signed in 1620 by the Pilgrims
The Age of Reason. A period during the 17th and 18th centuries when people began questioning religious dogma and emphasizing scientific reasoning and knowledge
Declaration of Independence
document that pronounced the colonies free and independent states. Consists of a preamble (introduction) followed by 3 main parts. Signed on July 4, 1776
Articles of Confederation
agreement among the 13 founding states that legally established the USA as a confederation of sovereign states and served as it's first constitution. Went into use in 1777 and formally ratified by all 13 states in 1781
Treaty of Paris
document officially signed in 1783 that ended the American Revolutionary War and gave independence to the United States of America
Document that helped the American government bolster it's strength. Officially ratified in 1788 and in 1789 George Washington was selected to be the 1st president of the US. Defined the 3 branches of government.
War of 1812
Conflict between Great Britain and the US over restriction of trade between the US and France, seizure of American ships by the British Navy and impressment of American sailors.
Treaty of Ghent
Signed in 1815. Ended the War of 1812
The concept of "America for Americans". The US would not become involved in European affairs and European countries were not to colonize the Western hemisphere
Issued by Abraham Lincoln, granting freedom to slaves in rebellious states.
Abolished slavery in the United States
Gave African Americans full citizenship
Granted voting rights to black men
Granted voting rights to women (1920)
18th and 21st amendment
Prohibited alcohol consumption (1919) and repealed then this amendment (1933)
Dred Scott v Sandford
Court case in which the Supreme Court ruled that slaves were not citizens of any state nor of the US and thus had no rights. A slave was property, not a person nor citizen (
Plessy v Ferguson
Court case that legalized segregation, allowing 'separate but equal' facilities for blacks and whites (1896)
Brown v Board of Education
Court case that outlawed segregation in public schools (1954)
10 year period from Oct. 29, 1929 - 1939 Franklin D. Roosevelt implemented a series of government-sponsored programs called the New Deal to revitalize the economy.
Proclamation warning communist countries that the US would help any nation in danger of falling under communist control. Led to involvement in both the Korean and Vietnam wars
Alonso de Leon
Man who established missions throughout Texas (San Francisco de los Tejas - 1690)
the purpose of these were to promote religious conversion and provide territorial claim and protection over Texas. 1682-1812
Year that Mexico obtained independence from Spain and took control of the colony of Texas
Years in which Texas functioned as an independent nation under President Sam Houston, finally joining the US as the 28th state.
The holiday that celebrates news of the Emancipation Proclamation reaching Galveston in 1865
Type of map that shows the locations of places, boundaries of states, counties and towns
Type of map that shows a particular topic, such as population density , agricultural, or economic features.
The exchange or transmission of cultural information and lifestyles from people around the world
The total value of all goods and services produced in the country. Is an important indicator of the standard of living.
Approach to tabulate GDP = C+I+G+(X-M) Consumer consumption + Investment expenditures + Government spending + Difference between exports and imports in foreign sector spending
Approach to tabulate GDP calculated by adding up total compensation to employees, gross profits for firms, and taxes, less any subsidies
amendment in 1913 that allowed the imposition of direct taxation of the citizens (Federal Income Tax)
December 7, 1941
Attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese
ex post facto
Laws passed after the crime was committed providing penalty for an act that was not illegal at the time it was committed. Prohibited by the Constitution
bills of attainder
laws that give punishment to someone without a court trial first. Prohibited by the Constitution
Marbury v Madison
set forth Judicial Review in which the Supreme Court has power to declare unconstitutional any executive order or legislative act of either federal or state government.
Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments to the US Constitution
separation of church and state
right to keep and bear arms
illegal to force people to offer quarter to soldiers during peacetime
right to privacy and unreasonable search and seizure
rights of due process, protection from self-incrimination, and double jeopardy
right to a speedy public trial
right to sue people
protection against cruel and unusual punishment
specific rights in the Constitution cannot be taken as a way to deny other rights retained by the people
rights not delegated to the federal government by the Constitution are reserved to the states or to the people
McCulloch v Maryland
Re: Bank of the United States. Established that the states did not have the power to tax the federal government
Gibbons v Ogden
Extended the definition of interstate commerce and cemented the power of the federal government over states when laws conflicted
Worcester v Georgia
Established the doctrine that the national government of the United States (not individual states) had authority in American Indian affairs
4 million years ago to 500 CE. Emphasizes the history of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Sumer, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, ancient China, ancient Greece, the Celts, the Romans and empires in Africa and India
500 CE - 1400 CE. Includes the Byzantine civilization, the rise of Islam, the Vikings, the Crusades, Genghis Khan and China, the African kingdoms and the Hundred Years War
age of discovery
1400 - 1700 CE. A period in history starting in the early 15th century continuing to the 17th century during which Europeans engaged in intensive exploration and mapping of the world. Led to the rise of transfer of plants, animals, foods, and human populations, the spread of communicable diseases and the sharing of cultures.
revolution and industry
1700-1900 CE. This period of enlightenment includes the birth of the Russian empire, birth of the United States, the Napoleonic era, the Industrial Revolution, and the unification of Germany and Italy
1900 CE - present WWI, WWII, Great Depression, revolution in China, Israel -v- Palestine, the Cold War, the space race, equal rights for women, and increased globalization
began in Massachusetts in 1775. British forces were repelled from Concord and forced back to Boston
US History - 1st Semester Vocabulary Terms - CMM61 terms