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Terms in this set (32)
bill of information
a statement of the charges against the accused prepared by the prosecutor, which, if approved by a judge, will require the accused to stand trial for the alleged crimes; this is used in states that do not employ a grand jury
Communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than many other types of speech but has been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court.
a fundamental state purpose, which must be shown before the law can limit some freedoms or treat some groups of people differently
false statements tah cause a person to be ridiculed
the guarantee in the fifth amendment to the constitution that one may not be twice put in jepordy of life or loimb for the same offense.
the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church
exclusionary rule of evidence
a requriment that any evidence in a criminal case obtained illegally by police cannot be used as evidence in a trail
free exercise clause
the First Amendment guarantee that citizens may freely engage in the religious activities of their choice
a jury to inquire in accusations of crime and to evaluate the grounds for indictments
the act of accusing; a formal accusation
a tort consisting of false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person
government censorship of information before it is published or broadcast
an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government
The process by which provisions of the Bill of Rights are brought within the scope of the Fourteenth Amendment and so applied to state and local governments.
The situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids self-incrimination.
an abusive attack on a person's character or good name
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the first amendment.
Jury selection process of questioning prospective jurors, to ascertain their qualifications and determine any basis for challenge.
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
the rights of full citizenship and equality under the law
a lawsuit brought by a representative member of a large group of people on behalf of all members of the group
de facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law
de jure segregation
Segregation imposed by law.
an exemption based on circumstances existing prior to the adoption of some policy
jim crow laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
determines the correctness of the logical relationship between two data items
The doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson that African Americans could constitutionally be kept in seperate but equal facilities.
an approach to constitutional analysis used by courts in the area of gender discrimination. laws based on gender are skeptical examination and are usually found to be unconstitutional
A test standard by the Supreme Court in determining whether laws based on gender are constitutional.
the practice of keeping blacks from voting in the southern states' primaries through arbitrary use of registration requirements and intimidation
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