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Love of wisdom


View of what is "good"

William Frankena

"Whatever is good will also probably involve some kind or degree of excellence"
"what is bad in itself is so because of thepresence of either pain or unhappiness or of some kind of defect or lack of excellence"

Influences of morality

Parents, law, religion, authority, experience

Socratic Method

Asking questions


The study of what is acceptable in society


associated with pleasure


associated with pain


having no moral sense, or being indifferent to right and wrong
ie-pyschopaths have no sense of conscience, guilt, or remorse


out of the realm of morality all thought
applies to inanimate objects (cars, guns)

Scientific.Descriptive approach of morality

Observes how human beings act in situations, but make no value judgments as to what is morally right or wrong
ie. human behavior or conduct


Primary Motivation


primarily motivated by the absence of pain


primary motivation is the reward

good boy/girl

motivated by public praise

Play by the rules

motivated by the rules


motivated because they believe it's right above all punishment or opinions of others


motivated by others

Carol Gilligan

Believed Kohlberg's theory is wrong because he only studied boys
Primary motivator for girls is relationships
Primary motivator for guys is rules

Determination of Morality

Religion, nature, individuality, society


motivated by consequences


unmotivated or unaware of the consequences

Egoists 1

act out of self-interest

Utilitarians 1

act out of interest for all "others"

Egoists group

individual- everyone act in my self interest
personal-believes that I ought to act in my own self interest
universal-everyone should act in their own self interest

Utilitarian group

Act- everyone should perform the act of bring the greatest good to people
Rule-everyone should follow the rule to bring the greatest good to people

David Brink

we see things based on our own philosophy


accepts authority, values good manners, does not rock the boat, does what is socially acceptable


keenly sensitive to injustic, wants to change society, becomes active in local and national movements


motivated by quest for pleasure


follows practically


sees life, people and existence to have no meaning

Virtue Ethics

oldest of all the ethical theories
focuses on the nation of character


main virtue ethicist
develop character in accord to virtue


aims toward some end,; happiness

practice and habits

a more ethical person


cultivation of the self; de-virtue

Alasdair MacIntrye

virtues are dispositions that not only act in particular ways but also to feel in particular ways

mens rea

thinking about doing it

actus reus

doing it


we have to decide things with sufficient reason (reasonable)

Process of Discernment

social implications
cultural influences
wisdom of past experiences
consult broadly
religious belief


clear, no room for exception


takes into consideration other circumstances, lots of room for exception

freedom has restraints and responsibilities


we are only as free as society wants us to be


religious determinism

God chooses what happens

scientific determinism

Isaac Newton believed the universe is governed by mechnical ways, Darwin believed in the survival of the fittest

Social-Cultural determinism

interracial dating, determinism

psychological determinism

Freud's stages (oral, anal, latent, phallic) Skinner believed our behavior is determined by conditioning

Hard Determinism

there is no freedom whatsoever

Soft Determinism

no one is completely free, we choose to follow rules

retributive justice

oldest form- eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth
people get what they deserve

distributive justice

concerns itself essentially with the equitable distribution of good and bad to humans


something given or received for worthy behavior


act of penalizing someone for a crime, fault, or misbehavior


act of giving someone what they deserve, regardless of the consequences; revenge


advocates rewarding or punishing based upon results of the act


act of somehow compensating a victim for harm or wrong done to him or her


equally rewarded without ability or work
rewarded according to ability
rewarded for merit
rewarded for needs- about YOU

Rewarding- Effort

does it count?
how is it measured?
doesn't outweight success
effort is given


long and expensive training (specialist)
expensive equipment
physical danger (firefighter, police)
unpleasantness of the job (nurse)

Theory of Justice

Motivated by doding what's right no matter the consequences
natural rights in a just society

John Rawls

equal rights given to everybody




Resitution- stole and must give back
rehabilitation- going to jail
reintegration-puts back into community

Setting up a moral System

Rationally based
Logically consistent
System must be teachable
System has ability to resolve conflicts

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