How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

67 terms

Ethics Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
Philosophy
Love of wisdom
Hedonism
View of what is "good"
William Frankena
"Whatever is good will also probably involve some kind or degree of excellence"
"what is bad in itself is so because of thepresence of either pain or unhappiness or of some kind of defect or lack of excellence"
Influences of morality
Parents, law, religion, authority, experience
Socratic Method
Asking questions
Ethics
The study of what is acceptable in society
Right
associated with pleasure
Wrong
associated with pain
Amoral
having no moral sense, or being indifferent to right and wrong
ie-pyschopaths have no sense of conscience, guilt, or remorse
Nonmoral
out of the realm of morality all thought
applies to inanimate objects (cars, guns)
Scientific.Descriptive approach of morality
Observes how human beings act in situations, but make no value judgments as to what is morally right or wrong
ie. human behavior or conduct
Kohlberg
Primary Motivation
Spanking
primarily motivated by the absence of pain
Lollipop
primary motivation is the reward
good boy/girl
motivated by public praise
Play by the rules
motivated by the rules
Conviction
motivated because they believe it's right above all punishment or opinions of others
Love
motivated by others
Carol Gilligan
Believed Kohlberg's theory is wrong because he only studied boys
Primary motivator for girls is relationships
Primary motivator for guys is rules
Determination of Morality
Religion, nature, individuality, society
Consequentialists
motivated by consequences
non-consequentialists
unmotivated or unaware of the consequences
Egoists 1
act out of self-interest
Utilitarians 1
act out of interest for all "others"
Egoists group
individual- everyone act in my self interest
personal-believes that I ought to act in my own self interest
universal-everyone should act in their own self interest
Utilitarian group
Act- everyone should perform the act of bring the greatest good to people
Rule-everyone should follow the rule to bring the greatest good to people
David Brink
we see things based on our own philosophy
Conventionalist
accepts authority, values good manners, does not rock the boat, does what is socially acceptable
Idealist
keenly sensitive to injustic, wants to change society, becomes active in local and national movements
hedonist
motivated by quest for pleasure
practicist
follows practically
denialist
sees life, people and existence to have no meaning
Virtue Ethics
oldest of all the ethical theories
focuses on the nation of character
Aristotle
main virtue ethicist
develop character in accord to virtue
telological
aims toward some end,; happiness
practice and habits
a more ethical person
confucianism
cultivation of the self; de-virtue
Alasdair MacIntrye
virtues are dispositions that not only act in particular ways but also to feel in particular ways
mens rea
thinking about doing it
actus reus
doing it
McCormick
we have to decide things with sufficient reason (reasonable)
Process of Discernment
social implications
generability
cultural influences
wisdom of past experiences
consult broadly
religious belief
absolutely
clear, no room for exception
relatively
takes into consideration other circumstances, lots of room for exception
freedom has restraints and responsibilities
...
we are only as free as society wants us to be
...
religious determinism
God chooses what happens
scientific determinism
Isaac Newton believed the universe is governed by mechnical ways, Darwin believed in the survival of the fittest
Social-Cultural determinism
interracial dating, determinism
psychological determinism
Freud's stages (oral, anal, latent, phallic) Skinner believed our behavior is determined by conditioning
Hard Determinism
there is no freedom whatsoever
Soft Determinism
no one is completely free, we choose to follow rules
retributive justice
oldest form- eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth
people get what they deserve
distributive justice
concerns itself essentially with the equitable distribution of good and bad to humans
reward
something given or received for worthy behavior
punishment
act of penalizing someone for a crime, fault, or misbehavior
retribution
act of giving someone what they deserve, regardless of the consequences; revenge
utilitarianism
advocates rewarding or punishing based upon results of the act
restitution
act of somehow compensating a victim for harm or wrong done to him or her
rewarded
equally rewarded without ability or work
rewarded according to ability
rewarded for merit
rewarded for needs- about YOU
Rewarding- Effort
does it count?
how is it measured?
doesn't outweight success
effort is given
Rewarding-Reason
long and expensive training (specialist)
expensive equipment
physical danger (firefighter, police)
unpleasantness of the job (nurse)
seniority
Theory of Justice
Motivated by doding what's right no matter the consequences
natural rights in a just society
John Rawls
equal rights given to everybody
Punishment
Unpleasant
cause
authority
laws
Mercy
Resitution- stole and must give back
rehabilitation- going to jail
reintegration-puts back into community
Setting up a moral System
Rationally based
Logically consistent
Universable
System must be teachable
System has ability to resolve conflicts