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UT-Ultrasonic Examination: Article 23
Terms in this set (105)
the duration of time between the start and end of the signal when the amplitude reaches 10% of the maximum amplitude.
a reflector, other than the specified reflector, whose
the vertical pulse height of a signal, usually base to peak, when indicated by an A-scan presentation.
a term used to describe an angle of incidence or refraction other than normal to the surface of the test object, as in angle beam examination, angle beam search unit, angle beam longitudinal waves, and angle beam shear waves.
a method of data presentation utilizing a horizontal base line that indicates distance, or time, and a vertical deflection from the base line which indicates amplitude.
a factor that describes the decrease in ultra- sound intensity with distance; normally expressed in decibel per unit length.
a device for altering the amplitude of an ultra- sonic indication in known increments, usually decibels.
automated ultrasonic examinations (AUT)
a technique of ultrasonic examination performed with equipment and search units that are mechanically mounted and guided, remotely operated, and motor-controlled (driven) with- out adjustments by the technician. The equipment used to perform the examinations is capable of recording the ultrasonic response data, including the scanning positions, by means of integral encoding devices such that imaging of the acquired data can be performed.
direction of sound beam parallel to component's major axis.
signal response from the far boundary of the material under examination.
a specular reflection from the back-wall of the component being examined.
sound wave that travels between the two transducers with a longitudinal velocity that reflects off the material's back surface.
the time of flight or distance trace (horizontal) across the A-scan CRT display (for no signal condition).
a divergence of the ultrasonic beam as the sound travels through a medium.
B-scan (parallel scan)
scan that shows the data collected when scanning the transducer pair in the direction of the sound beam transversely across a weld.
a means of ultrasonic data presentation which displays a cross section of the specimen indicating the approximate length (as detected per scan) of reflectors and their relative positions.
correlation of the ultrasonic system response(s) with calibration reflector(s).
a reflector with a dimensioned surface which is used to provide an accurately reproducible reference level.
direction of sound beam perpendicular to (cylindrical) component's major axis.
computer processed display or analysis and display of ultrasonic data to provide two or three dimensional surfaces.
a technique in which the search unit makes contact directly with the test piece through a thin layer of couplant.
a substance used between the search unit and examination surface to permit or improve transmission of ultrasonic energy.
cathode ray tube.
an ultrasonic data presentation which provides a plan view of the test object, and discontinuities therein.
damping, search unit
limiting the duration of a signal from a search unit subject to a pulsed input by electrically or mechanically decreasing the amplitude of successive cycles.
twenty times the base ten logarithm of the ratio of two ultrasonic signal amplitudes, dB = 20 log 10 (amplitude ratio).
diffracted waves from the upper and lower tips of flaws resulting from its interaction with the incident sound wave.
when a wave front direction has been changed by an obstacle or other in-homogeneity in a medium, other than by reflection or refraction.
distance-amplitude correction (DAC) curve
see distance-amplitude response curve.
distance-amplitude response curve
a curve showing the relationship between the different distances and the amplitudes of ultrasonic response from targets of equal size in an ultrasonic response from targets of equal size in an ultrasonic transmitting medium.
an ultrasonic data presentation which provides an end view of the specimen indicating the approximate width (as detected per scan) of reflectors and their relative positions.
D-scan (nonparallel scan)
scan that shows the data collected when scanning the transducer pair perpendicular to the direction of the sound beam along a weld.
dual search unit
a search unit containing two elements, one a transmitter, the other a receiver.
calibration that is conducted with the search unit in motion, usually at the same speed and direction of the actual test examination.
indication of reflected energy. effective height: the distance measured from the outside
edge of the first to last element used in the focal law.
an electronic device that enables correlation of ultrasonic system response initially obtained employing the basic calibration block.
E-scan (also termed an electronic raster scan)
a single focal law multiplexed, across a grouping of active elements, for a constant angle beam stepped along the phased array probe length in defined incremental steps.
two-directional search unit beam coverage, both parallel and perpendicular to the weld axis, of the volume specified by the referencing Code Section. Perpendicularly oriented search unit beams are directed from both sides of the weld, when possible, with the angle(s) selected to be appropriate for the configuration being examined.
a system that includes the ultrasonic instrument, search unit cable, and search unit.
a phased array operational file that defines the search unit elements and their time delays, for both the transmitter and receiver function.
fracture mechanics based
a standard for acceptance of a weld based on the categorization of imperfections by type (i.e., surface or subsurface) and their size (i.e., length and through-wall height).
free run (TOFD)
taking data, without the movement of the probes (e.g., held stationary), of the lateral wave and back-wall reflection to check system software output.
recording a set of data without moving the search units.
effective ultrasonic wave frequency of the system used to inspect the material.
frequency (pulse repetition)
the number of times per second an electro-acoustic search unit is excited by the pulse generator to produce a pulse of ultrasonic energy. This is also called pulse repetition rate.
an inspection system using the phase interface between the ultrasonic wave from an object and a reference signal to obtain an image of reflectors in the material under test.
an ultrasonic examination method in which the search unit and the test part are submerged (at least locally) in a fluid, usually water.
that which marks or denotes the presence of a reflector.
the response of the ultrasonic system display to the transmitter pulse (sometimes called main bang).
the boundary between two materials.
a compression wave that travels by the most direct route from the transmitting probe to the receiving probe in a TOFD configuration.
linear scanning (also termed line scanning)
a single pass scan of the search unit parallel to the weld axis at a fixed stand-off distance.
a measure of the proportionality of the amplitude of the signal input to the receiver, and the amplitude of the signal appearing on the display of the ultrasonic instrument or on an auxiliary display.
linearity (time or distance)
a measure of the proportionality of the signals appearing on the time or distance axis of the display and the input signals to the receiver from a calibrated time generator or from multiple echoes from a plate of material of known thickness.
those waves in which the particle motion of the material is essentially in the same direction as the wave propagation.
loss of back reflection
an absence or significant reduction in the amplitude of the indication from the back surface of the part under examination.
Manual Ultrasonic Examinations (MUT) or Encoded Manual Ultrasonic Examinations (EMUT)
a technique of ultrasonic examination performed with search units that are manipulated by hand without the aid of any mechanical guidance system. Manual techniques may be encoded such that imaging of the acquired data can be performed.
the type of ultrasonic wave propagating in the materials as characterized by the particle motion (for example, longitudinal, transverse, and so forth).
multiple back reflections
in ultrasonic straight beam examination, successive reflections from the back and front surfaces of the material.
any undesired signal (electrical or acoustic) that tends to interfere with the reception, interpretation, or processing of the desired signal.
nonparallel or longitudinal scan
a scan whereby the probe pair motion is perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam (e.g., parallel to the weld axis).
parallel or transverse scan
a scan whereby the probe pair motion is parallel to the ultrasonic beam (e.g., perpendicular to the weld axis).
crystal or polycrystal materials which when mechanically deformed, produce electrical charges, and conversely, when intermittently charged, will deform and produce mechanical vibrations.
primary reference response (level)
the ultrasonic response from the basic calibration reflector at the specified sound path distance, electronically adjusted to a specified percentage of the full screen height.
probe center spacing (PCS)
the distance between the marked exit points of a pair of TOFD probes for a specific application.
a short wave train of mechanical vibrations.
an inspection method in which the presence and position of a reflector are indicated by the echo amplitude and time.
pulse repetition rate
see frequency (pulse repetition).
the maximum sound path length that is displayed.
a block that is used both as a measurement scale and as a means of providing an ultrasonic re- flection of known characteristics.
an interface at which an ultrasonic beam en- counters a change in acoustic impedance and at which at least part of the energy is reflected.
the angular change in direction of the ultrasonic beam as it passes obliquely from one medium to an- other, in which the waves have a different velocity.
a control for minimizing or eliminating low amplitude signals (electrical or material noise) so that larger signals are emphasized.
the ability of ultrasonic equipment to give simultaneous, separate indications from discontinuities having nearly the same range and lateral position with respect to the beam axis.
the time that the mechanical vibrations of a piezoelectric element continue after the electrical pulse has stopped.
Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique for ultrasonic testing.
a documented examination strategy that pro- vides a standardized and repeatable methodology for weld examinations. The scan plan displays cross-sectional joint geometry, extent of coverage, clad or overlay (if present), heat affected zone (HAZ) extent, search unit size(s) and frequency(ies), beam plots of all angles used, search unit(s) position in relation to the weld centerline [probe center spacing (PCS) in the case of time of flight diffraction (TOFD)], search unit mechanical fixturing de- vice, and if applicable, zonal coverage overlap.
the movement of a search unit relative to the test piece in order to examine a volume of the material.
see test surface.
an electro-acoustic device used to transmit or receive ultrasonic energy or both. The device generally consists of a nameplate, connector, case, backing, piezoelectric element, wearface, or lens, or wedge.
search unit mechanical fixturing device
the component of an automated or semi-automated scanning apparatus attached to the scanner frame that secures the search unit or search unit array at the spacing and offset distance specified by the scan plan and that provides for consistent contact (for contact techniques) or suitable water path (for immersion techniques).
semi-automated ultrasonic examinations (SAUT)
a technique of ultrasonic examination performed with equipment and search units that are mechanically mounted and guided, manually assisted (driven), and which may be manually adjusted by the technician. The equipment used to perform the examinations is capable of recording the ultrasonic response data, including the scanning positions, by means of integral encoding devices such that imaging of the acquired data can be performed.
a measure of the smallest ultrasonic signal which will produce a discernible indication on the display of an ultrasonic system.
wave motion in which the particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
the ratio of the amplitude of an ultra- sonic indication to the amplitude of the maximum back- ground noise.
a reference block or other item in addition to the basic calibration block that enables correlation of ultrasonic system response initially obtained when using the basic calibration block.
single (fixed angle)
a focal law applied to a specific set of active elements for a constant angle beam, emulating a conventional single element probe.
split DAC curves
creating two or more overlapping screen DAC curves with different sensitivity reference level gain settings.
S-scan (also called a Sector, Sectorial, or Azimuthal scan)
may refer to either the beam movement or the data display.
set of focal laws that provides a fan- like series of beams through a defined range of angles using the same set of elements.
two-dimensional view of all A-scans from a specific set of elements corrected for delay and refracted angle. Volume-corrected S-scan images typically show a pie-shaped display with defects located at their geometrically correct and measurable positions.
calibration for examination wherein the search unit is positioned on a calibration block so that the pertinent reflectors can be identified and the instrumentation adjusted accordingly.
a vibrating pulse wave train traveling nor- mal to the test surface.
the uniform and repeated movement of an electron beam across the CRT.
that surface of a part through which the ultra- sonic energy enters or leaves the part.
through transmission technique
a test procedure in which the ultrasonic vibrations are emitted by one search unit and received by another at the opposite surface of the material examined.
the time it takes for a sound wave to travel from the transmitting transducer to the flaw, and then to the receiving transducer.
a cross-sectional gray scale view of the weld formed by the stacking of the digitized incremental A-scan data. The two types of scans (parallel and non- parallel) are differentiated from each other by calling one a B-scan and the other a D-scan. Currently there is no standardized terminology for these scans and they may be interchanged by various manufacturers (e.g., one calling the scan parallel to the weld axis a B-scan and another a D-scan).
an electro-acoustical device for converting electrical energy into acoustical energy and vice versa. See also crystal in Article 30, SE-1316, Section I.
pertaining to mechanical vibrations having a frequency greater than approximately 20,000 Hz.
the angle-beam path in materials starting at the search-unit examination surface, through the material to the reflecting surface, continuing to the examination surface in front of the search unit, and reflection back along the same path to the search unit. The path is usually shaped like the letter V.
display of the rectified, and usually filtered, r-f signal.
in ultrasonic angle-beam examination by the con- tact method, a device used to direct ultrasonic energy into the material at an angle.
a standard for acceptance of a weld based on the characterization of imperfections by type (i.e., crack, incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, or inclusion) and their size (i.e., length).
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