Florida Professional Education Glossary

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Terms in this set (...)

Accommodation
a change in the way a student learns new material. This teaching method is directed by IEP
IEP
stands for individual educational program
Achievement Test
a standardized test designed to measure the amount of knowledge and or skill a person has acquired. Evaluates student learning in comparison with a standard or norm
Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
Students can acquire language in two ways: they can acquire it by steadily absorbing it in a natural manner through meaningful interactions or they can learn it by intentionally studying vocabulary and grammar.
Acronym
A word formed from the first initials of a title or phrase.
Action Research
A reflective process of researching instructional methods based on student scores and the teacher's observations.
Adolescent Literacy Support Framework: Adolescent Literacy Support Framework
A literacy structure focused on motivation, literacy strategies, "across the curriculum," and organizational support..
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Emotional factors contribute greatly to a student's ability to learn a second language. A student that experiences high anxiety in the classroom is said to have a ------which prevents them from learning a new language.
Alphabetic Principle:
Also called graphophonemic awareness, it refers to the fact that each individual sound has a graphical representation of individual letters or letter blends. The second part is the correspondence between sounds and letters that leads to reading.
Alternative Assessment
Many educators prefer the description -----------to describe different to traditional, standardized, norm- or criterion-referenced traditional paper and pencil testing; might require students to answer an open-ended question, work out a solution to a problem, perform a demonstration of a skill, or in some way produce work rather than select an answer from choices on a sheet of paper.
Analytic Scoring
A type of rubric scoring that separates the whole into categories of criteria that are examined one at a time. Student writing, for example, might be scored on the basis of grammar, organization, and clarity of ideas. This is useful as a diagnostic tool.
Anecdotal Records
A type of informal evaluation. A teacher records observations of student performance and over time they can see patterns of growth.
Assessment
In an educational context, the process of observing learning; describing, collecting, recording, scoring, and interpreting information about a student's or one's own learning; used to determine placement, promotion, graduation, or retention; an essential tool for evaluating the effectiveness of changes in the teaching- learning process.
Assistive Technology
Any helpful, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices that are used to provided accommodations for students with disabilities.
Automaticity
The ability to see a word, decode it, and readily understand its meaning.
Authentic Assessment
Evaluating by asking for the behavior the learning is intended to produce; ideally mirroring and measuring student performance in a "real-world" context; are meaningful and valuable, and are part of the learning process. It is also the concept of model, practice, feedback in which students know what excellent performance is and are guided to practice an entire concept rather than bits and pieces in preparation for eventual understanding.
Bandura, Albert
He believed that learning occurs without direct consequences to one's actions. He proposed that learners observe modeled behavior and the consequences of the behavior, and then project the consequences on themselves.
Benchmark
Student performance standards (the level[ s] of student competence in a content area); also, an actual measurement of group performance against an established standard at defined points along the path toward the standard.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
The vocabulary a student uses to carry on social conversations in low-stress environments such as the lunch room and the playground.
Blending
A component of fluency that requires students to blend together phonemes, the smallest units of sound, to form words.
Bloom's Taxonomy
A classification of learning objectives proposed by Benjamin in 1956. It is used to classify educational goals included the following levels: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The Revised describes the levels as Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating.
Brain Hemispheres
The two halves of the brain. The left controls the right side of the body and functions primarily as the more academic and logical side of the brain. The right controls the left side of the body and functions primarily as the artistic and creative side
Bruner, Jerome
A psychologist who is known for his work in cognitive psychology and the cognitive learning theory.
Bullying
Using superior strength or social stature to intimidate or influence the decisions of another person.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALPS)
The academic language that an English language learner must learn to successfully understand and communicate the content of academic texts.
Choral Reading
Students read together, aloud, and in unison with the teacher to practice fluency.
Classroom Management
Planning and implementing methods to ensure that the learning environment setting provides an effective venue for learning.
Code of Ethics
The set of standards that apply to ethical decision-making within the field of education in the state of Florida.
Cognates
Words from different languages that have the same meaning and similar pronunciation and spelling.
Cognitive Objective
A learning objective that has three main components: condition, behavior, and degree.
Competency Test
A test intended to establish that a student has met established minimum standards of skills and knowledge and is thus eligible for promotion, graduation, certification, or other official acknowledgement of achievement.
Connotation
The implied meaning of a word based on its context.
Constructive-Response
A question that requires students to create something to answer the question rather than choosing from a given list.
Convergent Questioning
A type of question that requires a student to give one answer. An example is, "What is 4 + 2?" Generally, this type of questioning requires lower-level thinking skills.
Cooperative Learning
A student-centered learning approach in which heterogeneously grouped students work in groups to accomplish a shared task.
Correlational Research
The statistical association between two or more variables that is used to determine the relationship between the variables.
Creative Thinking
The process students use to develop ideas that are unique, useful, and worthy of further elaboration.
Criterion-Referenced Test
A test in which the results can be used to determine a student's progress toward mastery of a content area. Performance is compared to an expected level of mastery in a content area rather than to other students' scores. The scores have meaning in terms of what the student knows or can do, rather than how the test-taker compares to a group.
Critical Thinking
The process students use to reflect on, assess, and judge the assumptions underlying their own and others' ideas and efforts.
Cummins, Jim
Famous for his work with second-language acquisition, Coined the terms Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALPS).
Curriculum Alignment
The degree to which a curriculum's scope and sequence matches a testing program's evaluation measures.
Cyberbullying
Bulling that occurs online, primarily on social media sites.
Database
A collection of information that is organized and stored on a computer to provide an easy method for accessing.
Decoding
A component of fluency that requires students to convert letters into words.
Deductive Thinking
A method of reasoning that requires students to take one or more general statements and then work their way down to a more specific conclusion.
Denotation
The literal meaning of a word.
Differentiation
Structured learning environments that address the variety of learning styles, interests, and abilities found within a classroom. Is based upon the belief that students learn best when they make connections between the curriculum and their diverse interests and experiences.
Direct Instruction
A teaching method in which the teacher provides knowledge by presenting it to the students, generally in the format of a lecture.
Discrimination
The unfair treatment of another individual based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or age.
Divergent Questioning
A type of question that requires critical thinking, since it allows for students to generate multiple answers to a defined question. An example is, "What is freedom?" Generally, this type of questioning requires higher-order thinking skills.
Dual Language Programs
A learning environment in which students who are learning English are placed together with students who are fluent in English, and English language learners receive specialized English language instruction. All student in this program receive core/ basic subject area instruction in English and another language.
Educational Objectives
Goals developed by a teacher, based on state standards, which direct student learning.
Effective Feedback
Timely, specific communication provided to students based on growth and development.
Elaboration
The ability of a student to develop critical thinking skills which lead to the skill of developing ideas.
Encapsulation
The process of stating ideas in a concise, precise form.
Encoding
Turning messages into symbols which could include something as simple as translating spoken language into text or as advanced as converting math word problems into an equation.
Essay Test
A test that requires students to answer questions in writing; responses can be brief or extensive.
Evaluation
Both qualitative and quantitative descriptions of progress towards and attainment of project goals. Using collected information (assessments) to make informed decisions about continued instruction, programs, and activities
Experimental Research
Research in which an independent variable is manipulated and its effect on one or more dependent variables is measured. the researcher randomly assigns the participants who are being studied (also called the subjects) to two or more comparison groups. Sometimes the comparison groups are referred to as treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group receive some type of treatment, such as a special reading program.
Extinction
The practice of ignoring an undesired behavior. For instance, a child that makes noises to gain the teacher's attention may cease if the teacher ignores the behavior.
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation through the use of external rewards. used to manage student behavior.
Flexibility
The ability of a student to categorize ideas.
Florida Abuse Hotline
The communication tool utilized by educators to report suspected abuse.
Florida Consent Decree
The document that addresses the civil rights of English language learners in the state of Florida, including their right to equal access to all education programs. It provides a structure that ensures the delivery of the comprehensible instruction to which English language learners are entitled.
Fluency
The ability to read with precision, speed, and the proper intonation
Formative Assessment
Assessment occurring during the process of a unit or a course.
Graphic Organizer
A visual tool for organizing knowledge.
Graphophonemic Awareness
Also called the Alphabetic Principle, refers to the fact that each individual sound has a graphical representation of individual letters or letter blends. The second part is the correspondence between sounds and letters that leads to reading.
High-Stakes Testing
Any testing program whose results have important consequences for students, teachers, schools, and/ or districts. Such test may include promotion, certification, graduation, or denial/ approval of services and opportunity..
High-Traffic Areas:
Paths that students often travel in the classroom, such as where they line up to leave the room and the path they take to frequently used supplies
Holistic Method
In assessment, assigning a single score based on an overall assessment of performance rather than by scoring or analyzing dimensions individually. The product is considered to be more than the sum of its parts, and so the quality of a final product or performance is evaluated rather than the process or dimension of performance.
Home Language Survey
The initial questionnaire that is given to all incoming Florida students. asks questions about the primary language spoken in the home. If any question on the Survey is answered "yes" the student is evaluated for English proficiency.
Individualized Education Program
A written document that is developed through a team effort for each public school child who is eligible for special education and reviewed at least once a year.
Individual Needs Assessment
The process by which the educator identifies individual professional learning goals with primary emphasis on student learning needs by reviewing certification needs, classroom-level disaggregated student achievement, and behavioral data related to content area skills, school initiatives, the School Improvement Plan, and school and team goals..
Individualized Instruction
Instructional strategies that are tailored to a student's specific learning style.
Inductive Thinking
A method of reasoning that requires students to take specific facts and use them to develop a general conclusion
Input Hypothesis
The belief that in order to challenge a student, the teacher needs to provide material that is slightly above the student's ability level in any language
Instructional Objective
The educational goal of a lesson; specifically, what a teacher wants the students to know at the conclusion of a lesson.
Intellectual Property
A work that is personally created by an individual. It can be copyrighted.
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation that comes from a within source such as self-motivation, and the satisfaction that is created when personal goals are achieved.
Item Analysis
Analyzing each item on a test to determine the proportions of students selecting each answer. Can be used to evaluate student strengths and weaknesses; may point to problems with the test's validity and to possible bias.
Journals
Students' personal records and reactions to various aspects of learning and developing ideas. A reflective process often found to consolidate and enhance learning
Krashen, Steven
An educational activist who is famous for his contributions to the fields of second-language acquisition, bilingual education, and reading.
Learning Styles
The ways in which a student recognizes and processes information in the context of an educational setting. They are clearly delineated by the ways in which learners prefer to concentrate, store, and remember new and challenging information. The seven learning styles are visual, aural, verbal, physical, logical, social, and solitary.
Lecture
A type of teacher-centered direct instruction where the teacher gives information while the students take notes.
Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
A term to describe students who are not native English speakers and struggle with speaking, listening, reading, or writing in English.
Mainstream/ Inclusion
An ESOL program where the students who are learning English are grouped with students who are fluent in English. Instruction is only in English and students are supported in basic core/ subject areas through the use of ESOL strategies.
Mastery Test
An assessment that shows mastery of a given skill or concept. If a student struggles to pass, he or she may be lacking a prerequisite skill.
Mean
One of several ways of representing a group with a single, typical score. It is figured by adding up all the individual scores in a group and dividing them by the number of people in the group. This is also known as the average, and it can be affected by extremely low or high scores.
Measurement
Quantitative description of student learning and qualitative description of student attitude.
Median
The point on a scale that divides a group into two equal subgroups. It is not affected by low or high scores as is the mean.
Metacognition
The knowledge of one's own thinking processes and strategies, and the ability to consciously reflect and act on the knowledge of cognition to modify those processes and strategies.
Mind Mapping
A method of visual note-taking that helps students organize information in unique and personal ways.
Modeled Reading
A method wherein the teacher reads aloud a book which is above the students' reading level. Students may or may not have a copy of the text with which to follow along. The purpose is to demonstrate a skill or ability such as fluency or a fix-up strategy.
Modality Preference
The way a child prefers to learn. Students may be auditory, visual, kinesthetic, or mixed learners.
Modification
A change in the curriculum's learning requirements due to a student's inability to master the required state standards.
Monitor Hypothesis
A hypothesis developed by Krashen that states if a student can learn the grammatical rules of a new language, he or she will be able to keep track of the written and spoken language in the future
Multicultural Education
An educational approach that focuses on five key areas: content integration, knowledge construction, equity pedagogy, prejudice reduction, and empowerment of school culture.
Multiple-Choice Tests
A test in which students are presented with a question or an incomplete sentence or idea. The students are expected to choose the correct or best answer/ completion from a menu of alternatives.
Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner of Harvard University defined seven distinct intelligences which relate to the learning environment. Is a theoretical framework for defining, understanding, assessing and developing learner's different intelligence factors. Through Gardner's research, one can easily see that teachers must create learning environments based on a variety of intelligences.
Native Language
Any language that is spoken regularly in the home.
Natural Order Hypothesis
States that second-language acquisition will follow a predictable pattern, and that certain grammatical structures will be acquired before others. Krashen contends that for this reason, educators should follow a specific order of grammatical instruction.
Negative Reinforcement
A method of influencing behavior through removing an adverse stimulant in order to strengthen a behavior. For example, a parent may stop complaining about a messy room if the child begins to clean his or her room. The lack of nagging is the removal of the stimulant as a result of the room remaining clean.
No Child Left Behind Act
Legislation that supports the need for standards-based education reform. This is achieved by setting high standards and establishing measurable goals to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction.
Norm
A distribution of scores obtained from a group. The group is the midpoint (or median) of scores or performance of the students in that group. Fifty percent will score above and 50 percent below the norm.
Norm Group
A random group of students selected by a test developer to take a test to provide a range of scores and establish the percentiles of performance for use in establishing scoring standards.
Norm-Referenced Tests
A test in which a student or a group's performance is compared to that of a norm group. The student or group scores will not fall evenly on either side of the median established by the original test takers. The results are relative to the performance of an external group and are designed to be compared with the group providing a performance standard. Often used to measure and compare students, schools, districts, and states on the basis of norm-established scales of achievement.
Objective Test
A test for which the scoring procedure is completely specified enabling agreement among different scorers.
Office of Professional Practice Services
Department which provides follow-up and accountability for educators based on the Code of Ethics
Onset
The beginning sound in a word. For example, in the word grin, the sound made by gr- is....Use of -------and rimes is an important component of phonemic awareness.
Originality
A focus area for developing critical-thinking skills that emphasizes combining ideas in new ways or coming up with unusual ideas.
Outcome
An operationally defined educational goal, usually a culminating activity, product, or performance that can be measured.
Paired Reading
Students work in pairs, taking turns reading aloud a selection of text in order to build fluency skills. This is commonly called buddy reading.
Pavlov, Ivan
A Nobel Prize-winning Russian psychologist known for his work in classical conditioning: the relationship between behavior and direct rewards. His work greatly influenced behaviorism.
Percentile
A ranking scale ranging from a low of 1 to a high of 99, with 50 as the median score. A rank indicates the percentage of a reference or norm group obtaining scores equal to or less than the test-taker's score. A score does not refer to the percentage of questions answered correctly; it indicates the test-taker's standing relative to the norm group standard..
Performance-Based Assessment
is a test of the ability to apply knowledge in a real-life setting. Assessment of the ---- is done using a rubric, or an analytic scoring guide, to aid in objectivity.
Performance Criteria
The standards by what student is evaluated. help assessors maintain objectivity and provide students with important information about expectations, giving them a target or goal to strive for.
Phonemes:
The smallest units of sound, which are blended to create words.
Phonemic Awareness
A subset of phonological awareness. A child with ------ can hear, identify, and manipulates phonemes, the smallest units of sound.
Phonological Awareness
The ability to detect individual sounds in a spoken word. It is a critical first step in learning to read and provides the foundation for phonics.
Planning
The process of designing the method of instruction used to teach a learning objective, and the way to assess the mastery of the objective.
Portfolio
A systematic and organized collection of a student's work that exhibits to others the direct evidence of a student's efforts, achievements, and progress over a period of time. The collection should involve the student in selection of its contents, and should include information about the performance criteria, the rubric or criteria for judging merit, and evidence of student self-reflection or evaluation.
Portfolio Assessment
may be assessed in a variety of ways. Each piece may be individually scored, or the portfolio might be assessed merely for the presence of required pieces, or a holistic scoring process might be used and an evaluation made on the basis of an overall impression of the student's collected work.
Positive Reinforcement
Anything that is added in order to cause an increase in a behavior. This can be a tangible reward or verbal praise. Scolding a child can cause good action of a negative behavior if receiving attention enforces an undesired behavior.
Pragmatics
How context contributes to the meaning of a word.
Prosody
Reading with a natural rhythm and pace.
Premack Principle
Pairs undesirable behaviors with desirable acts, and is employed frequently to induce students to engage in the former. An example is telling students they can go outside to play kickball, a desired outcome, after cleaning the art station, an undesirable task.
Principles of Professional Conduct
The set of principles which outline the appropriate conduct, parameters, and repercussions for educators in the state of Florida.
Print Concept
The realization that books have front and back covers, that the words start at the top of the page and progress from left to right, and that as you finish a line of text, you move to the next line.
Prior Knowledge
Previously acquired knowledge that applies to a current lesson..
Problem-Based Learning
A method of student-centered learning where the students work individually or cooperatively to solve a problem.
Process
A general method of doing something, involving steps or operations which are usually ordered and/ or interdependent. can be evaluated as part of an assessment, as in the example of evaluating a student's performance during pre-writing exercises leading up to the final production of an essay or paper.
Product
The tangible and stable result of a performance or task. An assessment is made of student performance based on evaluation of the end result of a demonstration of learning.
Professional Learning Communities
A group of educators who act as reflective practitioners, analyzing student data in order to improve instruction methods.
Profile
A graphic compilation of the performance of an individual on a series of assessments.
Project
A complex assignment involving more than one type of activity and production. can take a variety of forms; some examples are a mural construction, a shared service project, or another type of collaborative or individual effort.
Punishers
Punishment decreases the likelihood a behavior is repeated, provided it is not reinforcing in some way, such as giving a violator status with peers.
Qualitative Research
Research that is based on unmeasurable qualities, such as teacher observation and examination of case studies.
Quantitative Research
Research that is based on measurable data, such as how methods of instruction influence student test scores.
Quartile
The breakdown of an aggregate of percentile rankings into four categories: 0- 25th percentile, 26th- 50th percentile, etc.
Realia
Concrete objects that are used to give meaning to a lesson. Use of these objects from the real world help deepen student understanding.
Reflective Practitioner
An educator who review instructional practices and self-evaluates the effectiveness of the instruction that is being provided.
Reliability
The measure of consistency for an assessment instrument. The instrument should yield similar results over time with similar populations in similar circumstances
Rime
The ending phoneme in a word. For example, in the word brim, the sound made by the ending- im is the ------. Use of onsets and ----- are an important component of phonemic awareness.
Rubric
In general, a scoring guide used in subjective assessments. Also can be an explicit description of performance characteristics corresponding to a point on a rating scale.
Running Record
A tool used to assess reading as a student reads from a benchmark book or selection.
Scaffolding
The practice of providing sufficient assistance to a student in order to facilitate learning.
Scale Scores
Scores based on a scale ranging from 001 to 999. Useful in comparing performance in one subject area across classes, schools, districts, and other large populations, especially in monitoring change over time.
School Advisory Council
An organization composed of the principal and a group of elected students, teachers, parents, and appointed community members, who develop the annual school improvement plan.
School Improvement Plan
A plan developed annually by the School Advisory Council and implemented by the principal and school staff to improve the school in a specific area, such as math scores.
School Needs Assessment
At least annually the school identifies professional learning needs through a classroom-by-classroom analysis of disaggregated student achievement data by content and skill areas, subgroups needing special assistance, and other school data
Scoring Criteria
Rules for assigning a score or the dimensions of proficiency in performance used to describe a student's response to a task. May include rating scales, checklists, answer keys, and other scoring tools.
Segmenting
A component of fluency in which a student breaks a word into phonemes, the smallest unit of sound.
Self-Assessment
The learner uses an assessment list or rubric and benchmarks to assess his or her own work.
Self-Report
Term which focuses on the responsibility of an educator to alert public authorities of an arrest.
Semantics
The study of words and their meanings.
Sheltered English Approach
A program for English-language learners where the classes include only Limited English Proficiency students (LEP) (hence the term sheltered). Students may have the same home language or many different home languages. Instruction is entirely in English, and students receive special instruction in English while being supported in basic core/ subject areas through the use of ESOL strategies.
Simulation
A tool which focuses on imitating the operation of a real-world process or system.
Site License
The documentation that outlines the privacy rights of publishers; must be utilized to determine if software or materials can be distributed or printed.
Skinner, B. F.
An American psychologist and behaviorist known for his theory of operant conditioning, which states that a behavior is controlled by the consequence that follows it.
Stakeholders
Parents, teachers, administrators, and community members who are invested in the academic success of a student.
Standardized Test
An objective test that is given and scored in a uniform manner. ------ are carefully constructed, and items are selected after trials for appropriateness and difficulty.
Simple Descriptive Research
A method used when data are collected to describe persons, organizations, settings, or phenomena. For example, a researcher administers a survey to a random sample of teachers in the state in order to describe the characteristics of the state's population of teachers.
Sociocultural Theory
Vygotsky believed that students experience incremental gains in learning. A student who is operating in his or her "zone of proximal development" will be able to easily learn when provided help by a more experienced person.
Standards
Agreed-upon values used to measure the quality of student performance, instructional methods, curriculum, etc.
Subjective Test
A test in which the impression or opinion of the assessor determines the score or evaluation of performance; this type of test does not provide the learner with answers in advance.
Summative Assessment
Evaluation at the conclusion of a unit or units of instruction, or an activity or plan to determine or judge either student skills and knowledge or the effectiveness of a plan or activity
Submersion
The practice of deepening an English-language learner in a mainstream classroom with no teacher support. is a sink-or-swim approach to second-language acquisition that is no longer practiced in the state of Florida.
Stages of Second-Language Acquisition
The stages in which a second language is acquired. The four stages are pre-production, early production, speech emergent, and intermediate fluency.
Text Marking
The practice of highlighting important details and main ideas in the text as a component of active reading.
Thorndike, E. L.
A behavioral theorist who focused on the law of effect and believed that behaviors which result in favorable consequences are likely to be repeated and that behaviors which result in unfavorable consequences are not likely to be repeated.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
A technique that pairs repetitive physical movement with vocabulary.
Transfer
The idea that students from the same cultural background may share common knowledge with each other. This knowledge would be unknown to students from other cultures.
Transitions
The times of switching from one classroom activity to another.
Validity
The degree to which a test measures the desired performance and appropriate inferences can be drawn from the results; a judgment that the assessment accurately reflects the learning it was designed to measure
Visualization
An instructional strategy which opens up student thinking by using sensory information to stimulate imagination with both spoken and written words.
Vygotsky, Lev
An educational theorist known for his sociocultural theory that stresses the importance of social interaction on learning.
Wait Time
The time between when a teacher asks a question then calls on a student to answer.
Whole Language Approach
A method of language instruction that is integrated and in which listening, speaking, reading, and writing are used along with other instructional strategies to build proficiency. It is student centered, context embedded, and literature or academic content-based.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The difference between the level at which a child can independently solve a problem and the level at which a child can solve a more difficult problem with adult guidance or the assistance of a more skilled peer.