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Arts and Humanities
Review for the CTEL exam
Terms in this set (43)
theory that describes the two ways language is internalized: picked up (acquired subconsciously); and studies by formally learning rules. Krashen says acquisition leads to success
process by which students develop fluency and proficiency in a second language while continuing to develop proficiency in their first.
screen or filter that blocks the input if it is up and allows input when it is down. The lower anxiety level, lower the filter. Krashen
focus on practicing drills and memorizing dialogues. Drill and die method, error correction and practicing patterns and perfect pronunciation. Based on Skinner's behavioral psychology
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skill - language needed in social interaction. Everyday language.
English Learners are able to learn through their first language in order to keep up with grade-level subject matter while developing their English language skills.
Transitional - Early and Late-Exit
Maintenance - ex: Dual or Two-way immersion
a construct developed by Cummins which reflects the intent of the English Learner to reject the culture of the first language and have a sense of confusion about the second language and culture.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency - the kind of language needed to learn new information, think abstractly, and carry out more cognitively demanding tasks. 'Academic language'
Contextual Interaction Model (Theory)
Explains how community background and student input interacts with instructional treatments to reach the three desired goals: learn English, Learn academic content, and Develop self-image in a multicultural society.
Community Language Learning Approach
an adult second-language method that includes the teacher acting as counselor or facilitator. Student-centered. Use audio or video-tape for later analysis and development
i + 1 i stands for what the learner knows, + 1 represents just a little bit above that. Input is made comprehensible by context, paralinguistic clues, speech modification, and building on prior knowledge. Krashen
objects, props, manipulatives, pictures, graphs, charts that help the learner make meaning from spoken or written word.
few or any clues present to support comprehension. e.g., textbooks, tests, lecture, novels. Quadrant C and D of Cummins' Construct of Proficiency
Common Underlying Proficiency - Cummins.
Supports the argument that cognitively challenging tasks are common across languages.
the careful guidance by the teacher to get students to focus on the process of how they accomplished the learning task. The beyond part of the lesson.
based on critical pedagogy. Krashen.
Focus on Task
making the task meaningful and interesting is a critical ingredient for communicative language learning along with comprehensible input, contextualization, prior knowledge and negotiation of meaning. Michael Long
Learning L2 by mastering grammatical forms through vocabulary study, practice exercises, and translation activities.
based on French immersion programs in Canada. Students are taught in or through their second language and do not lose their first language. Goal is develop proficient bilingualism.
lesson format that builds on students' prior knowledge, cultural backgrounds, experiences, insights, and perceptions.
we acquire language when we understand it. Speech is a result of language acquisition, not its cause. TPR and Natural Approach. Krashen.
student acquires basic everyday conversational skills in both languages but not native-like proficiency in either.
Limited English Proficient (LEP)
label commonly used to describe students who have a language other than English and who are in the process of acquiring English as a second language. English Learners is a more updated term.
Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis
the dual iceberg. hypothesis that there are underlying proficiencies across all languages. CALP is transferable across languages.
..., Hypothesis that asserts that a learner's learned system acts as a monitor to what they are producing. In other words, while only the acquired system is able to produce spontaneous speech, the learned system is used to check what is being spoken. Krashen
This second language "acquisition-based" method focuses on authentic communication as its primary goal. It is characterized as a low-anxiety approach because the focus is on meaning rather than form. Speech is not forced with this method, but is allowed to emerge naturally. The natural approach is the application of "Mama's" method to second language teaching. It is guided by the following principles: comprehension precedes production; production emerges in stages; curriculum consists of communicative goals; and activities that are task-based strive to lower student anxiety.
Natural Order Hypothesis
..., The acquisition of a second language will follow predictable patterns. Avoid grammatical instruction in favor of immersion and interactive performance. Learners will acquire grammar when they are ready. Krashen
attains social and academic skills in one language, but only fluency in the other.
technique that gives learners advanced prior knowledge about the forthcoming lesson. Lowers the anxiety level and provides context for next lesson.
build on background experiences of the learner.
level of bilingualism in which students attain proficiency in both languages is positively correlated with high achievement.
Sheltered Instruction (SDAIE)
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English - a process or way of organizing the learning environment to allow students who are developing English proficiency to access grade-level content.
..., A designer method whereby the teacher remains mostly silent to encourage students to solve their own problems. Originated by Caleb Gattegno in the 70s, this method was meant to facillitate learning through discovery. Students were given cuisenaire rods and used these colored rods to figure out the patterns of language based on a few examples given by the teacher. However, The language taught is structural. And hence, the main criticism is that it lacks meaningful communication. As well, it is difficult to do beyond the simplest early stages of language. But on the other hand, learning language through problem solving remained a valuable technique in later task-based language teaching.
Stage I: Silent period, simple vocab, commands only with visuals and multi-sensory input. Follows simple directions, points to answers, acknowledge yes or no, 0-6 months
Stage II: 2nd Stage of SLA - attempts at words and phrases; single words, two- to three-word combinations
Stage III: students have: great comprehension and can make simple sentences
students can: summarize, recall facts, define new vocabulary, retell information
Have 3,000 words of active and receptive vocabulary
Teachers should: ask open ended questions, teach learning strategies and study skills, have students describe personal events
Stage IV: They are beginning to use more complex sentences when speaking and writing and are willing to express opinions and share their thoughts. They will ask questions to clarify what they are learning in class. These English language learners will be able to work in grade level math and science classes with some teacher support. Comprehension of English literature and social studies content is increasing. At this stage, students will use strategies from their native language to learn content in English.
Student writing at this stage will have many errors as ELLs try to master the complexity of English grammar and sentence structure. Many students may be translating written assignments from native language. They should be expected to synthesize what they have learned and to make inferences from that learning. This is the time for teachers to focus on learning strategies. Students in this stage will also be able to more complex concepts.
intended to lower the affective filter; physical surroundings and atmosphere in classroom are the vital factors to make sure that "the students feel comfortable and confident
Separate underlying proficiency
Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT)
method developed by Michael Long to ensure student-centered instruction and maximize student talk. "Informational equity" has every learner given a specific piece of information to share with the group. Promotes positive interdependence and negotiation of meaning.
Additive Bilingualism Principle - Cummins proposes that there is a positive correlation between bilingualism and cognition. There are three levels of bilingualism: proficient, partial and limited. There are also two processes: Additive and Subtractive Bilingualism
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Approach developed by James Asher involving the skilful use of commands system of teacher language to develop student response first physically and then speech emerges naturally as students begin to give those same commands to other students. Low stress, high retention.
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