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Chapter 3.5 Economic Development - Energy

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non-renewable
energy which is used once and cannot be used again
Huge amounts of energy are needed each day in order
to power the modern world
Different countries use vastly different
amounts of energy
Global consumption of energy has changed over the last
200 years
Local energy sources - Give the power for most of the things we
use on a daily basis
Local energy sources - Without these sources of energy there would be no
television, cell phones, computers, hot water, electricity or gas to cook with
Local energy sources - Most energy sources originally
come from the sun
Local energy sources - Coal, oil, natural gas which give us 88% of the total energy used worldwide come from
solar energy which has been captured and stored over a very long time
Local energy sources -Used up very
quickly
Local energy sources - The amount of energy people use around the world is
not the same
Local energy sources - The levels of consumption (how much energy is used) may be pretty low or high depending on
each country for many different purposes
In Germany, energy supply
is very expensive
In Dubai, oil is very cheap
indoor ski centre in the desert
fossil fuels
energy sources such as oil, gas and coal
In Pakistan, as poor people become wealthy they can afford to buy what was once
difficult for them and depend on electricity to be used
Global energy consumption - The last couple of hundred years the amount of energy around the world has
increased massively
Global energy consumption - Increase in the global population
but it is not the full story
Global energy consumption - The amount of energy we use per person has also increased greatly as we buy and use more
gadgets such a s mobile phones and music devices
Global energy consumption - Most of this power comes from
fossil fuels which cannot be replaced
Global energy consumption - Fossil fuels are said to be
non-renewable
Global energy consumption - The use of renewable power is on
the increase as well
Global energy consumption - Types of energy such as wind, water and tidal power that can be used
over and over again without running out
In China, people are aware of the negative use of electricity but keep on needing it on a
daily basis for many goods that without them they would be lost
Fossil fuels are by far the world's
most significant sources of energy
Energy security comes when a country is
self-sufficient in its energy production
China is one of the world's
biggest consumers of fossil fuels
Fossil fuels take many
millions of years to form but are being used up at an incredibly fast rate
We may be halfway through the available resources of fossil fuels and we have only been using them
in any significant quantities for about the last two hundred years
New coal and oil fields are being discovered all the time but
they are getting harder and more expensive to find
There are barely enough to keep up with the huge and growing demands from
MEDCs
More recently, the growing populations and industry in
China and India are leading to an even greater demand for power
China produces more coal than
any other country 41% of the global total in 2007
China uses almost all of this in its
power stations and factories
Saudi Arabia has huge amounts of oil mined (12.7% of the global total) but
the vast majority is sold for export
The different ways the fuel is used has benefits for China and Saudi Arabia - Can produce its own fuel it will improve its energy security - does not
have to depend on expensive imports, or face the threat that supplies from other countries could be cut off
The different ways the fuel is used has benefits for China and Saudi Arabia -
If a country can export fuel it will bring in a lot of money for the economy - oil grains the most money, and its price is increasing almost all the time
renewable energy
sources of power that can be used over and over again
Despite the big drop in prices with the world recession in 2009, the cost of oil
almost constantly grows upwards, but there is little drop in demand
The different ways the fuel is used has benefits for China and Saudi Arabia - Coal and natural gas still bring in
lots of export money
As nearly everything in the world is transported using oil,
the price of goods rises as well
Coal in China - China's huge economic growth over the past few years has been
built on coal
Coal in China - Coal provides 80% of all the electricity in the country, twice
the global average
Coal in China - Often said that China builds one new coal-fired station each week, but
nobody knows the real number
Coal in China - Coal provides power to the factories producing
all the goods China sells overseas
Coal in China -It powers the energy-hungry electrical goods that people in the country are buying as they become more wealthy
Televisions, PCs, music players, cookers, dishwashing machines are
more popular in Chinese homes
Coal cost to China - Human and environmental cost of coal in China - More miner deaths underground - If gas explodes it causes
the release of tonnes of coal dust and the collapse of the mine's walls
Coal cost to China - Human and environmental cost of coal in China - More miner deaths underground - China's mining industry is the deadliest
in the world with 2600 deaths in 2009
Coal cost to China - Human and environmental cost of coal in China - More miner deaths underground - Thousands of illegal pits have been closed down, demand of coal is high, miners will always
work to make some money despite the dangers
Coal cost to China - Human and environmental cost of coal in China - Putting out the fire -
some fires start all of a sudden when
a gas or coal dust gets too hot and it has been happening for almost 50 years
Coal cost to China - Human and environmental cost of coal in China - Putting out the fire - Fires underground are very difficult and
expensive to put down
Coal cost to China - Human and environmental cost of coal in China - Putting out the fire - Millions of tonnes of coal are burning needlessly every day causing mines to
collapse and destroy infrastructure above ground
Coal cost to China - Human and environmental cost of coal in China - A local and global problem - China's concentration on burning fossil fuels is adding to the global
problem of climate change
Coal cost to China - Human and environmental cost of coal in China - A local and global problem - The carbon dioxide produced could be having
a huge effect in changing the global temperature
Coal cost to China - Human and environmental cost of coal in China - A local and global problem - Acid rain, caused by the pollutants from coal-fired power stations, is falling on
agricultural land, killing crops and leaving the ground unsuitable for farming, problematic for an increasing population that needs to be fed
With growing demand from Brazil, Russia, India and China as they develop their manufacturing industry,
there is little sign of significant drops in the price of oil in the future
Fuelwood is the most important source of energy for billions of people in
LEDCs
Collection of fuelwood causes
environmental and social problems
Deforestation for fuelwood collection is an
increasing problem
levels of consumption
the amount of energy used
fuelwood
wood, twigs, branches, etc used as an energy source for cooking and heating
In many parts of the world, people who have little money do
not use fossil fuels
They are not connected to a national electricity grid, and even if there are supplies available, many cannot
afford to use electricity
People still need fuel for cooking and have to rely on what they can find
to burn to make a fire
Fuelwood or animal dug is
used to make fire
2.4 billion people use fuelwood for
cooking and heating
From scrub land and dead wood
lying on the ground
energy security
when a country has enough soucres of power to cover most, if not all, of its energy needs
Serious side effects of deforestation - Removing trees leaves soils open to erosion by wind and water - the soil may be removed over a large area with knock-on effects as
farmers can no longer grow crops
Serious side effects of deforestation - As trees are removed, desertification is the result and areas start to grow, this is a particular problem
on the edges of the Sahara Desert
Serious side effects of deforestation - As wood becomes more scarce, people have to travel further to find it, in some areas it is not unusual for people to
take a whole day to find fuelwood and carry it home
Serious side effects of deforestation - There are personal safety issues in this activity for women, who are usually the ones
who collect the firewood
Serious side effects of deforestation - In urban areas people may have to buy fuelwood for cooking. As supplies get harder to find
the price rises, taking more out of already small family incomes
Added to these problems is the fact that cooking with fuelwood on open fires in enclosed spaces causes
breathing difficulties and respiratory diseases, especially for the millions of women who do the work in LEDCs
The use of fuelwood remains high, especially in countries
with large populations
In many African countries almost all the power a family uses
comes from burning wood
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - It has become a
very serious problem
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - The area has attracted immigrants for a number of
different reasons
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - Many immigrants have come to work on the tea plantations of
Jalpaiguri
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - Other immigrants have been forced from surrounding countries like Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan due to
conflict, forced migration and natural disasters
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - Cutting down trees and selling the wood is an
easy way for migrants to make money
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - They also need if for their
own cooking
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - Many local people, both men and women are finding much of their time taken up collecting wood when that time would be better used in
making money for their families
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - More than 70% of the wood taken is from
state-owned forests
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - The fuelwood business is the main source of income
in 10% of households in the region
As population increased there has been more deforestation as living trees are
cut down and burnt
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - Armed security guards have had little effect in
cutting down the amount taken estimated to be 72 000 tones a week
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - The weather is changing
and the soils are bare
Forest destruction for fuelwood in West Bengal, India - There´s less farming as the
soil is not fertile
deforestation
the removal of tree cover in an area for farming or other activities
desertification
the process in which semi-arid environments change to become more desert-like
sustainable
something that can be used on a long-term basis with little effect on the environment
Renewable energy can help reduce the global dependence on
fossil fuels
There are many different types of
renewable energy available
Use of renewable energies can help
combat global climate change
One Uk farmer said about biogas: the dung from four cows can produce energy to
heat and light a house for a year
Costa Rica has set itself a target throughout 2017 to work only
with renewable energy
Time is running out for
fossil fuels
They will not last forever although some of them may
last hundreds more years
Many people are concerned on whether we will keep on using them knowing the damage they may be doing to the planet by
causing climate change
Many countries are turning to
renewable energies
Sustainable and can be used continuously without
running out
Less than 10% of global power is currently provided by
renewable energy but this is increasing all the time
Some countries want to develop their use
of renewable energy because it will
Help reduce their reliance on
expensive fossil fuels
Renewable energies provide
energy security
Ease the world's energy crisis brought on by increasing demand for resources
that are running out
Many countries are already improving their technology so that they can develop
alternative energy sources
The main types of renewable energy currently available are hydro-electric, solar, wind, geothermal and power
from plants including biogas
Advantages of renewable energy sources - Use almost limitless natural resources
like wind, water and sun
Advantages of renewable energy sources - Help to fight global climate change by
reducing dependence on fossil fuels
Advantages of renewable energy sources - Can use waste products like
biogas
Advantages of renewable energy sources - Cheap to run
after initial setup costs
biogas
power from rotting plants and animal matter
Disadvantages of renewable energy sources - Often require large-scale power stations that are expensive to build like
wind farms, geothermal plants, solar power stations
Advantages of renewable energy sources - Can sometimes be set up on a small scale like solar panels or small wind turbines on
individual houses
Disadvantages of renewable energy sources - May need to be set up in difficult environments like
solar in the desert
Disadvantages of renewable energy sources - Need major infrastructural development like
dams for hydro-electric power
Disadvantages of renewable energy sources - Can have negative environmental consequences like
silting of river dammed for HEP
Disadvantages of renewable energy sources - Can have negative effects on people like
flooding of villages to create reservoirs for HEP
Geothermal - Hot springs and naturally hot sources of water below ground can
also be used to provide power
Geothermal - Countries with active volcanoes can use energy from the heated rocks and
molten magma under the earth´s surface
Geothermal - In Iceland geothermal power stations produce around a quarter of the country´s electricity and
almost 90% of heating and hot water in buildings
Geothermal - El Salvador major energy supply comes from
Los Ausoles geothermal station
Wind - These can be on land or offshore in the sea, where turbines can be 50 metres high but
need good supply of wind and flat areas to build on
Wind - Wind farms are expensive to build but cheap and safe to operate and
almost completely pollution-free
Wind - Lines of wind turbines known as wind farms are becoming increasingly popular as
an alternative source of power
Costa Rica and Guatemala are Central American countries using
wind to create energy
Advantages of renewable energy sources - Mainly produce little or no
pollution after initial setup
Disadvantages of renewable energy sources - Natural resources like solar power or wind may not always be available depending
on weather conditions
geothermal
power from amgma, hot rocks and hot water within the Earth
steam and hot water are pumped upwards to the generating station and cooling water are pumped down in a
geothermal station
solar
power from the sun
Running water - Water wither as waves, tides or in rivers, is a very successful form of
renewable energy
Running water - The UK is one country currently experimenting with different
forms of wave power
Running water - France has tidal barrages or dams across the mouths of some of its big rivers
including the world's second biggest across the Rance estuary
Running water - The most widely used form of water power is in hydroelectric plants across
or fast-flowing rivers
Our source of electricity in El Salvador is mostly from of the large and small scale dams builts in rivers mainly
Rio Lempa
Solar - As much of the power we use has the sun as its original source it makes sense to harness
the energy directly
Solar - Solar panels convert the heat into
electricity
Solar - In many countries this is done on a small scale
on individual houses
Solar - In Spain huge lines of solar panels have been set up and given perfect ,
conditions of cloudless skies, provide good quantities of electricity
Solar - El Salvador has its first solar farm installed and working since
2017
Biogas - Rotting fruit, vegetables, food and animal waste give off
methane which can be burnt as biogas
Biogas -There have been many successful initiatives to introduce this kind of power on a small scale in
homes in LEDCs
Biogas -Many European countries are also investigating ways of using the technology on a larger scale by
connecting biogas into natural gas pipelines
reactor
the machine that produces electricity in a nuclear power station
impervious
does not let water through
nuclear power
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