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Anatomy and Physiology: The Female Reproductive System

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Uterus
The uterus is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located posterior and superior to the urinary bladder. It is the home for a developing fetus
Ovary
Ovaries produce female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone as well as ova (commonly called "eggs"), the female gametes.
Fallopian tubes
The fallopian tubes are a pair of muscular tubes that extend from the left and right superior corners of the uterus to the edge of the ovaries. The fallopian tubes end in a funnel-shaped structure called the infundibulum, which is covered with small finger-like projections called fimbriae.
Fimbriae
The fimbriae swipe over the outside of the ovaries to pick up released ova and carry them into the infundibulum for transport to the uterus.
Fundus
The fundus of the uterus is the top portion, opposite from the cervix. Fundal height, measured from the top of the pubic bone, is routinely measured in pregnancy to determine growth rates.
Endometrium
The endometrium provides support to the embryo during early development. The visceral muscles of the uterus contract during childbirth to push the fetus through the birth canal.
Myometrium
The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue. Its main function is to induce uterine contractions.
Cervix
The cervix or cervix uteri (Latin: neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system. In a non-pregnant woman, the cervix is usually 2 to 3 cm long (~1 inch) and roughly cylindrical in shape.
Vagina
The vagina is an elastic, muscular tube that connects the cervix of the uterus to the exterior of the body. It is located inferior to the uterus and posterior to the urinary bladder. The vagina functions as the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse and carries sperm to the uterus and fallopian tubes. It also serves as the birth canal by stretching to allow delivery of the fetus during childbirth. During menstruation, the menstrual flow exits the body via the vagina.
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