850 terms

GRE Vocabulary list22c

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betterment
the process of becoming or making something or someone better
errant
1. doing something that is wrong; not behaving in an acceptable way
2. (of a husband or wife) not sexually faithful
stitch
1. one of the small lines of thread that you can see on a piece of cloth after it has been sewn; the action that produces this
2. one of the small circles of wool that you make around the needle when you are knitting
3. a short piece of thread, etc. that doctors use to sew the edges of a wound together
4. a sudden pain in the side of your body, usually caused by running or laughing
regroup
1. to arrange the way people or soldiers work together in a new way, especially in order to continue fighting or attacking someone
2. (of a person) to return to a normal state after an unpleasant experience or a period of difficulty, and become ready to make an effort again with new enthusiasm or strength
uproar
1. a situation in which people shout and make a lot of noise because they are angry or upset about something
2. a situation in which there is a lot of public criticism and angry argument about something that someone has said or done, outcry
leak out
(of secret information) to become known to the public
corps
1. a large unit of an army, consisting of two or more divisions
2. one of the groups of an army with a special responsibility
3. a group of people involved in a particular job or activity
uphold
1. to support something that you think is right and make sure that it continues to exist
2. (especially of a court of law) to agree that a previous decision was correct or that a request is reasonable
accommodation
1. [plural] somewhere to live or stay, often also providing food or other services
2. (formal) an agreement or arrangement between people or groups with different opinions that is acceptable to everyone; the process of reaching this agreement
3. (biology) the way that the eyes automatically adjust so that you can see objects at varying distances
grant
1. to agree to give someone what they ask for, especially formal or legal permission to do something
2. to admit that something is true, although you may not like or agree with it
commandant
the officer in charge of a particular military group or institution
grandiloquent
lofty in style
sheriff
an elected officer responsible for keeping law and order in a county or town
propaganda
ideas or statements that may be false or exaggerated and that are used in order to gain support for a political leader, party, etc.
archive
(n) a collection of historical documents or records of a government, a family, a place, or an organization; the place where these records are stored
(v) to put or store a document or other material in an archive
dearth
a lack of something; the fact of there not being enough of something, scarcity
unhinge
to make someone very upset or mentally ill
lull
(n) a quiet period between times of activity
(v) to make someone relaxed and calm
resurgence
the return and growth of an activity that had stopped
all-out
using or involving every possible effort and done in a very determined way
ex) an all-out attack on the opposition
fortress
a building or place that has been made stronger and protected against attack, fort
vaunted
proudly talked about or praised as being very good, especially when this is not deserved
transient
1. continuing for only a short time, fleeting, temporary
2. staying or working in a place for only a short time, before moving on
rueful
feeling or showing that you are sad or sorry
reckon
1. (informal) to think something or have an opinion about something
2. (not used in the progressive tenses) to be generally considered to be something
3. to calculate an amount, a number, etc.
in tandem (with somebody/something)
a thing that works or happens in tandem with something else works together with it or happens at the same time as it
fodder
1. food for horses and farm animals
2. (disapproving) (often after a noun) people or things that are considered to have only one use
scalpel
a small sharp knife used by doctors in medical operations
complicit
involved with other people in something wrong or illegal
anatomy
1. the scientific study of the structure of human or animal bodies
2. the structure of an animal or a plant
utter (v)
to make a sound with your voice; to say something
goose
거위
endemic
regularly found in a particular place or among a particular group of people and difficult to get rid of
incidence
(formal) the extent to which something happens or has an effect
dictum
a statement that expresses something that people believe is always true or should be followed
strenuous
1. needing great effort and energy, arduous
2. showing great energy and determination
impudent
rude; not showing respect for other people, impertinent
philandering
(of a man) the fact of having sexual relationships with many different women, womanizing
suspend
1. to hang something from something else
2. to officially stop something for a time; to prevent something from being active, used, etc. for a time
3. to officially delay something; to arrange for something to happen later than planned
4. to officially prevent someone from doing their job, going to school, etc. for a time
guile
the use of skillful but dishonest behavior in order to trick people, deceit
furnishings
the furniture, curtains, etc. in a room or house
guileless
free of deceit
acrimony
angry, bitter feelings or words
lenient
not as strict as expected when punishing someone or when making sure that rules are obeyed
detention
1. the state of being kept in a place, especially a prison, and prevented from leaving
2. the punishment of being kept at school for a time after other students have gone home
thermostat
a device that measures and controls the temperature of a machine or room, by switching the heating or cooling system on and off as necessary
mind-boggling
(informal) very difficult to imagine or to understand; extremely surprising
stupendous
extremely large or impressive, especially greater or better than you expect, staggering
Fahrenheit
화씨(F)
poised
1. in a position that is completely still but is ready to move at any moment
2. in a position that is balanced but likely to change in one direction or another
3. completely ready for something or to do something
address
3. (formal) to say something directly to someone
4. to use a particular name or title for someone when you speak or write to them
5. (formal) to think about a problem or a situation and decide how you are going to deal with it
rambling
1. (of a building) spreading in various directions with no particular pattern, sprawling
2. (of a speech or piece of writing) very long and confused, incoherent
3. (of a plant) growing or climbing in all directions, for example up a wall
labyrinth
a complicated series of paths, which it is difficult to find your way through
terse
using few words and often not seeming polite or friendly
ignominy
public shame and loss of honor, disgrace
potentate
a ruler who has a lot of power, especially when this is not restricted by anyone else in the government
autodidact
a person who has taught himself or herself something rather than having lessons
miscreant
a person who has done something wrong or illegal
renegade
1. (often used as an adjective) a person who leaves one political, religious, etc. group to join another that has very different views
2. a person who opposes and lives outside a group or society that they used to belong to
tempest
a violent storm
bleak
1. (of a situation) not encouraging or giving any reason to have hope
2. (of the weather) cold and unpleasant
3. (of a place) exposed, empty, or with no pleasant features
garbled
(of a message or story) told in a way that confuses the person listening, usually by someone who is shocked or in a hurry
infusion
1. (formal) the act of adding something to something else in order to make it stronger or more successful
2. a drink or medicine made by leaving herbs, etc. in hot water
3. (medical) an act of slowly putting a drug or other substance into a person's vein; the drug that is used in this way
dynamo
1. a device for turning mechanical energy (= energy from movement) into electricity; a generator
2. (informal) a person with a lot of energy
spate
a large number of things, which are usually unpleasant, that happen suddenly within a short period of time
hospitable
1. (of a person) pleased to welcome guests; generous and friendly to visitors, welcoming
2. having good conditions that allow things to grow; having a pleasant environment
dub
1. to give someone or something a particular name, often in a humorous or critical way
2. to replace the original speech in a movie or television program with words in another language
insinuate
1. to suggest indirectly that something unpleasant is true, imply
2. (formal) (disapproving) to succeed in gaining someone's respect, affection, etc. so that you can use the situation to your own advantage
3. (formal) to slowly move yourself or a part of your body into a particular position or place
extrapolate
to estimate something or form an opinion about something, using the facts that you have now and that are valid for one situation and supposing that they will be valid for the new one
decorum
propriety in manners and conduct
morose
showing a brooding ill humor
apprise
inform somebody of something
enervate
weaken mentally or morally
intuit
to know that something is true based on your feelings rather than on facts, what someone tells you, etc.
multitude
an extremely large number of things or people
receptive
willing to listen to or to accept new ideas or suggestions, responsive
dyspepsia
(의학) 소화불량, indigestion
on account of
because of, answer = on account of
indignation
a feeling of anger and surprise caused by something that you think is unfair or unreasonable
owing to
because of, answer = owing to
grim
1. looking or sounding very serious
2. unpleasant and depressing
indigence
a state of extreme poverty or destitution
weep
1. (formal or literary) to cry, usually because you are sad
2. (usually used in the progressive tenses) (of a wound) to produce liquid
abolition
the ending of a law, a system, or an institution
accrue
1. to increase over a period of time
2. to allow a sum of money or debts to grow over a period of time, accumulate
zest
1. enjoyment and enthusiasm
2. the quality of being exciting, interesting, and enjoyable
hymn
a song of praise, especially one praising God and sung by Christians
indubitably
in a way that cannot be doubted; without question
ennui
feelings of being bored and not satisfied because nothing interesting is happening
monastery
a building in which monks (= members of a male religious community) live together
absorption
1. the process of a liquid, gas, or other substance being taken in
2. the process of a smaller group, country, etc. becoming part of a larger group or country
3. the fact of someone being very interested in something so that it takes all their attention
megalomania
1. (technology) a mental illness or condition in which someone has an exaggerated belief in their own importance or power
2. a strong feeling that you want to have more and more power
incur
1. if you incur something unpleasant, you are in a situation in which you have to deal with it
2. if you incur costs, you have to pay them
swearing
rude or offensive language
abstain
1. to choose not to use a vote, either in favor of or against something
2. to decide not to do or have something, especially something you like or enjoy, because it is bad for your health or considered morally wrong
caress
to touch someone or something gently, especially in a sexual way or in a way that shows affection
thumb one's nose at
to make a rude sign with your thumb on your nose; to show that you have no respect for someone or something
derision
a strong feeling that someone or something is ridiculous and not worth considering seriously, shown by laughing in an unkind way or by making unkind remarks, scorn
abstemious
marked by temperance in indulgence
avow
to say firmly and often publicly what your opinion is, what you think is true, etc.
avowed
that has been admitted or stated in public
secularism
the belief that religion should not be involved in the organization of society, education, etc., 세속주의
philistine
a person who does not like or understand art, literature, music, etc.
inquisitor
a person who asks a lot of difficult questions, especially in a way that makes you feel threatened
inquisitive
1. (disapproving) asking too many questions and trying to find out about what other people are doing, etc.
2. very interested in learning about many different things
chauvinism
an aggressive and unreasonable belief that your own country is better than all others
superfluous
more than you need or want
put off
put off someone : to cancel a meeting or an arrangement that you have made with someone
put off something : to change something to a later time or date
compromise
1. to give up some of your demands after a disagreement with someone, in order to reach an agreement
2. to do something that is against your principles or does not reach standards that you have set
3. to bring someone or something/yourself into danger or under suspicion, especially by acting in a way that is not very sensible
repent
to feel and show that you are sorry for something bad or wrong that you have done
dreary
that makes you feel sad; dull and not interesting
reprobate
a person who behaves in a way that society thinks is immoral
hard-boiled
1. (of an egg) boiled until the inside is hard
2. (of people) not showing much emotion
inculcate
to cause someone to learn and remember ideas, moral principles, etc., especially by repeating them often
tyranny
unfair or cruel use of power or authority
have no use for (someone)
to dislike someone
homage
something that is said or done to show respect for someone
divinity
1. the quality of being a god or like God
2. a god or goddess
3. the study of the nature of God and religious belief
penurious
very poor, destitute, penniless
undue
more than you think is reasonable or necessary, excessive
thwart
to prevent someone from doing what they want to do, frustrate
oblivion
1. a state in which you are not aware of what is happening around you, usually because you are unconscious or asleep
2. the state in which someone or something has been forgotten and is no longer famous or important
3. a state in which something has been completely destroyed
devotee
a person who admires and is very enthusiastic about someone or something
intoxicating
1. (of drinks) containing alcohol
2. making you feel excited so that you cannot think clearly
contemplate
1. to think about whether you should do something, or how you should do something
2. to think carefully about and accept the possibility of something happening
3. (formal) to think deeply about something for a long time
4. (formal) to look at someone or something in a careful way for a long time
embargo (n, v)
an official order that bans trade with another country
doctrine
a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a Church, a political party, etc.
that is to say
in other words, ans = that is to say
dwell on(upon)
to think or talk a lot about something, especially something it would be better to forget
hail from
~ 출신이다. (pv)
akin
similar to
ex) What he felt was more akin to pity than love.
versatile
1. (of a person) able to do many different things
2. (of food, a building, etc.) having many different uses
debilitate
1. to make someone's body or mind weaker
2. to make a country, an organization, etc., weaker
sow
1. to plant or spread seeds in or on the ground
2. to introduce or spread feelings or ideas, especially ones that cause trouble
wield
1. to have and use power, authority, etc.
2. to hold something, ready to use it as a weapon or tool
foe
(old use or formal) an enemy
chasm
(literary) a deep crack or opening in the ground
wrest (something) from (somebody/something)
1. to take something such as power or control from someone or something with great effort
2. to take something from someone that they do not want to give, suddenly or violently
calamity
an event that causes great damage to people's lives, property, etc., disaster
fanatic
1. (informal) a person who is extremely enthusiastic about something, enthusiast
2. (disapproving) a person who holds extreme or dangerous opinions, extreamist
wreak
to do great damage or harm to someone or something
havoc
a situation in which there is a lot of damage, destruction, or confusion
brash
1. confident in an aggressive way
2. (of things and places) too bright or too noisy in a way that is not attractive
shift(n)
1. a change in position or direction
2. a period of time worked by a group of workers who start work as another group finishes
3. the workers who work a particular shift
fractious
1. bad-tempered or easily upset, especially by small things, irritable
2. (formal) making trouble and complaining
theatrical
1. connected with the theater
2. (often disapproving) (of behavior) exaggerated in order to attract attention or create a particular effect
saucer
a small, shallow, round dish that a cup stands on; an object that is shaped like this
verbiage
the use of too many words, or of more difficult words than are needed, to express an idea
pauper
(old use) a very poor person
miser
(dissaproving) a person who loves money and hates spending it
curmudgeon
(old-fashioned) a bad-tempered person, often an old one
steadfast
(literary)(approving) not changing in your attitudes or aims, firm
roundabout
not done or said using the shortest, simplest, or most direct way possible
perfunctory
(of an action) done as a duty or habit, without real interest, attention, or feeling
brusque
using very few words and sounding rude
transpire
formal way of saying "happen"
intestine
a long tube in the body between the stomach and the anus. Food passes from the stomach to the small intestine and from there to the large intestine.
fortitude
courage shown by someone who is suffering great pain or facing great difficulties, bravery, courage
chant
1. words or phrases that a group of people shout or sing again and again
2. a religious song or prayer, or a way of singing, using only a few notes that are repeated many times
rapturous
expressing extreme pleasure or enthusiasm for someone or something, ecstatic
revile
to criticize someone or something in a way that shows how much you dislike them
exhort
to try hard to persuade someone to do something, urge
topple
1. to become unsteady and fall down; to make something do this
2. to make someone lose their position of power or authority, overthrow
antics
1. behavior that is silly and funny in a way that people usually like
2. behavior that is ridiculous or dangerous
spurn
to reject or refuse someone or something, especially in a proud way, shun
opprobrium
a state of extreme dishonor
evangelist
a person who tries to persuade people to become Christians, especially by traveling around the country holding religious meetings or speaking on radio or television, missionary
despise
(not used in the progressive tenses) to dislike and have no respect for someone or something
poignant
having a strong effect on your feelings, especially in a way that makes you feel sad, moving
ovation
enthusiastic clapping by an audience as a sign of their approval
archrival
숙적
citation
1. words or lines taken from a book or a speech, quotation
2. an official statement about something special that someone has done, especially about acts of courage in a war
apocryphal
(of a story) well known, but probably not true
induct
1. to formally give someone a job or position of authority, especially as part of a ceremony
2. to officially introduce someone into a group or an organization
3. to take someone into military service
4. to introduce someone to a particular area of knowledge
convict
to decide and state officially in court that someone is guilty of a crime
draft evasion
징병 기피 ( 2 words )
strip
6. to take away property or honors from someone, as a punishment
1. to take off all or most of your clothes or another person's clothes
appeal
a formal request to a court or to someone in authority for a judgment or a decision to be changed
brooding
sad and mysterious, or threatening
touch off
to make something begin, especially a difficult or violent situation
spout
1. to send out something, especially a liquid, in a stream with great force; to come out of something in this way
2. (informal) (disapproving) to speak a lot about something; to repeat something in a boring or annoying way
sullen
1. bad-tempered and not speaking, either on a particular occasion or because it is part of your character
2. (literary) (of the sky or weather) dark and unpleasant
carry on
1. (informal) to argue or complain noisily
2. to continue doing something
lump
1. a piece of something hard or solid, usually without a particular shape
2. a swelling under the skin, sometimes a sign of serious illness
rallying cry
a phrase or an idea that is used to encourage people to support someone or something
layoff
1. an act of making people unemployed because there is no more work left for them to do
2. a period of time when someone is not working or not doing something that they normally do regularly
gain, get, have, etc. the upper hand
to get an advantage over someone so that you are in control of a particular situation
ans = gain, get, have, etc. the upper hand
splendid
1. very impressive; very beautiful
2. (old-fashioned) excellent; very good
hostage
a person who is captured and held prisoner by a person or group, and who may be injured or killed if people do not do what the person or group is asking
fulsome
too generous in praising or thanking someone, or in saying that you are sorry, so that you do not sound sincere
squeamish
1. easily upset, or made to feel sick by unpleasant sights or situations, especially when the sight of blood is involved
2. not wanting to do something that might be considered dishonest or immoral
smattering
a small amount of something, especially knowledge of a language
blatant
(of actions that are considered bad) done in an obvious and open way without caring if people are shocked, flagrant
take into account
~을 고려하다, ~을 계산에 넣다
posthumous
happening, done, published, etc. after a person has died
anything but
definitely not, ans = anything but
obviate
do away with
watchdog
a person or group of people whose job is to check that companies are not doing anything illegal or ignoring people's rights
gross
1. being the total amount of something before anything is taken away
2. (formal or law) (of a crime, etc.) very obvious and unacceptable
mitigate
to make something less harmful, serious, etc., alleviate
quip
a smart and amusing remark
bashful
shy and easily embarrassed
redress
to correct something that is unfair or wrong
implacable
1. (of strong negative opinions or feelings) that cannot be changed
2. (of a person) unwilling to stop opposing someone or something
see/think fit (to do something)
to consider it right or acceptable to do something; to decide or choose to do something
ans = see/think fit (to do something)
intransigent
(formal)(disapproving)(of people) unwilling to change their opinions or behavior in a way that would be helpful to others, stubborn
debonair
(usually of men) fashionable and confident
stolid
not showing much emotion or interest; remaining always the same and not reacting or changing
in the wake of (somebody/something)
coming after or following someone or something, pv
trailblazer
a person who is the first to do or discover something and so makes it possible for others to follow
get(come) aboard
(미국·구어) [계획 따위]에 참여하다[끼다]
hassle
1. a situation that is annoying because it involves doing something difficult or complicated that needs a lot of effort
2. a situation in which people disagree, argue, or annoy you
down(along) the line
(informal) at some point during an activity or a process
clutter
to fill a place with too many things, so that it is messy
bask
to enjoy sitting or lying in the heat or light of something, especially the sun
understatement
1. a statement that makes something seem less important, impressive, serious, etc. than it really is
2. the practice of making things seem less impressive, important, serious, etc. than they really are
damp
slightly wet, often in a way that is unpleasant
horticulture
the study or practice of growing flowers, fruit, and vegetables
high-profile
receiving or involving a lot of attention and discussion on television, in newspapers, etc.
champion(v)
to fight for or speak in support of a group of people or a belief
for good mesure
as an extra amount of something in addition to what has already been done or given
attenuate
become weaker, in strength, value, or magnitude
skillet
frying pan, ans = skillet
incumbent
a person who has an official position
agrarian
connected with farming and the use of land for farming
tend
3. to care for someone or something
4. to serve customers in a store, bar, etc.
bed
an area of ground in a yard or park for growing flowers, vegetables, etc., 잠자는곳
disinfect
1. to clean something using a substance that kills bacteria
2. to run a computer program to get rid of a computer virus
conglomerate
(business) a large company formed by joining together different firms
detain
to keep someone in an official place, such as a police station, a prison, or a hospital, and prevent them from leaving
hearing
1. the ability to hear
2. an official meeting at which the facts about a crime, complaint, etc. are presented to the person or group of people who will have to decide what action to take
aftermath
the situation that exists as a result of an important (and usually unpleasant) event, especially a war, an accident, etc.
nowhere near
far from; not at all
fecund
1. able to produce a lot of children, crops, etc., fertile
2. producing new and useful things, especially ideas
warp
1. to become, or make something become, twisted or bent out of its natural shape, for example because it has become too hot, too damp, etc.
2. to influence someone so that they begin to behave in an unacceptable or shocking way
stunted
that has not been able to grow or develop as much as it should
overarching
very important, because it includes or influences many things
uncanny
strange and difficult to explain, weird
particular (n)
[usually plural] a fact or detail, especially one that is officially written down
proscribe
to say officially that something is banned
denouement
the end of a play, book, etc., in which everything is explained or settled; the end result of a situation
recapitulate
to repeat or give a summary of what has already been said, decided, etc.
Iraqi
(a person) from Iraq
jug
a large deep container with a small opening and a handle, for holding liquids
pomegranate
석류
squabble (n, v)
to argue noisily about something that is not very important
douse(dowse)
1. to stop a fire from burning by pouring water over it; to put out a light
2. to pour a lot of liquid over someone or something; to soak someone or something in liquid
viscous
(of a liquid) thick and sticky; not flowing freely
stock up on
~을 비축하다, 사재기하다
defamation
the act of damaging someone's reputation by saying or writing bad or false things about them
malign
to say bad things about someone or something publicly, slander
stanza
a group of lines that forms a metrical unit in some types of poems
appease
1. to make someone calmer or less angry by giving them what they want
2. to give a country what it wants in order to avoid war
pacify
1. to make someone who is angry or upset become calm and quiet
2. to bring peace to an area where there is fighting or a war
foil
(v) to stop something from happening, especially something illegal; to prevent someone from doing something, thwart
(n) anything that serves by contrast to call attention to another thing's good qualities something, thwart
omen
a sign of what is going to happen in the future, portent
malingerer
someone shirking duty by feigning illness or incapacity
portent
a sign or warning of something that is going to happen in the future, especially when it is something unpleasant, omen
venerable
(formal) venerable people or things deserve respect because they are old, important, wise, etc.
patronage
the support, especially financial, that is given to a person or an organization by a patron
propitious
likely to produce a successful result
lust
1. very strong sexual desire, especially when love is not involved
2. very strong desire for something or enjoyment of something
plaintiff
a person who makes a formal complaint against someone in court, opposite to defendant
ominous
suggesting that something bad is going to happen in the future, foreboding
cranky
(informal) bad-tempered
desiccate
lacking vitality or spirit; lifeless
miasma
a mass of air that is dirty and smells unpleasant
bliss
extreme happiness
traction
1. the force that stops something, for example the wheels of a vehicle, from sliding on the ground
2. the action of pulling something along a surface; the power that is used for doing this
noble
1. having fine personal qualities that people admire, such as courage, honesty, and care for others
2. very impressive in size or quality, splendid
3. belonging to the nobility (= families of high social rank), aristocratic
devoid
completely lacking in something
deleterious
harmful and damaging
appreciable
large enough to be noticed or thought important, considerable
check
6. to control something; to stop something from increasing or getting worse
7. to stop yourself from saying or doing something, or from showing a particular emotion
subterfuge
(formal) a secret, usually dishonest, way of behaving
subdue
1. to bring someone or something under control, especially by using force
2. to calm or control your feelings
forthright
direct and honest in manner and speech, frank
debatable
not certain because people can have different ideas and opinions about the thing being discussed, arguable, questionable
insidious
spreading gradually or without being noticed, but causing serious harm
discern
1. (formal) to know, recognize, or understand something, especially something that is not obvious, detect
2. to see or hear something, but not very clearly
benign
(formal) (of people) kind and gentle; not hurting anyone
apparel
1. clothing, when it is being sold in stores
2. (old-fashioned or formal) clothes, particularly those worn on a formal occasion
hold forth (on/about)
to speak for a long time about something in a way that other people might find boring
venue
a place where people meet for an organized event, for example a concert, sporting event, or conference
vow
a formal and serious promise, especially a religious one, to do something
repast
(old-fashioned or formal) a meal
take umbrage (at something)
(formal or humorous) to feel offended, insulted, or upset by something, often without a good reason
nuke
(v) to attack a place with nuclear weapons
(n) a nuclear weapon
soar
1. if the value, amount, or level of something soars, it rises very quickly
2. to rise quickly and smoothly up into the air
3. to fly very high in the air or remain high in the air
4. to be very high or tall
sleek
1. (approving) smooth and shiny
2. (approving) having an elegant smooth shape
3. (often disapproving) (of a person) looking rich, and dressed in elegant and expensive clothes
dock
1. a part of a port where ships are repaired, or where goods are put onto or taken off them
2. a long low structure built along, or out from, the shore of a lake, river, or the ocean, used by boats to allow passengers to get on and off
facade
1. the front of a building
2. the way that someone or something appears to be, which is different from the way someone or something really is
ripple
1. a small wave on the surface of a liquid, especially water in a lake, etc.
2. a thing that looks or moves like a small wave
3. a sound that gradually becomes louder and then quieter again
4. a feeling that gradually spreads through a person or group of people
monument
1. a building, column, statue, etc. built to remind people of a famous person or event
2. a building that has special historical important
3. a thing that remains as a good example of someone's qualities or of what they did
appellation
(formal) a name or title
drab
without interest or color; dull and boring
lethargy
the state of not having any energy or enthusiasm for doing things, inertal
makeover
the process of improving the appearance of a person or a place, or of changing the impression that something gives
whimsy
a way of thinking or behaving, or a style of doing something, that is unusual and not serious, in a way that is either amusing or annoying
rein
1. a long, narrow, leather band that is attached to a bit (= a metal bar in a horse's mouth) and is held by the rider in order to control the horse
2. [plural] the state of being in control or the leader of something
eschew
to deliberately avoid or keep away from something
pet project
특히 좋아하는 사업
rink
ice rink, skating rink
sedate
1. slow, calm, and relaxed, unhurried
2. quiet, especially in a way that lacks excitement
3. (of a person) quiet and serious in a way that seems formal
excursion
1. a short trip made for pleasure, especially one that has been organized for a group of people
2. (formal) a short period of trying a new or different activity
thoroughfare
a public road or street used by traffic, especially a main road in a city or town
parse
to divide a sentence into parts and describe the grammar of each word or part
insular
1. (disapproving) only interested in your own country, ideas, etc. and not in those from outside
2. (technology) connected with an island or islands
skyline
the outline of buildings, trees, hills, etc. seen against the sky
brigade
1. a large group of soldiers that forms a unit of an army
2. (often disapproving) used, always with a word or phrase in front of it, to describe a group of people who share the same opinions or are similar in some other way
supposedly
according to what is generally thought or believed but not known for certain, allegedly
forlorn
1. (of a person) appearing lonely and unhappy
2. (of a place) not cared for and with no people in it
3. unlikely to succeed, come true, etc.
ostentatious
1. (disapproving) expensive or noticeable in a way that is intended to impress people, showy
2. (disapproving) behaving in a way that is meant to impress people by showing how rich, important, etc. you are
3. (of an action) done in a very obvious way so that people will notice it
gregarious
liking to be with other people, sociable
contingent (n, adj.)
(n1) a group of people at a meeting or an event who have something in common, especially the place they come from, that is not shared by other people at the event
(n2) a group of soldiers that are part of a larger force event
(adj.) (formal) depending on something that may or may not happen
premeditated
(of a crime or bad action) planned in advance
desultory
going from one thing to another, without a definite plan and without enthusiasm
exalt
1. to make someone rise to a higher rank or position, sometimes to one that they do not deserve
2. to praise someone or something very much
affront
a remark or an action that insults or offends someone or something
eyesore
a building, an object, etc. that is unpleasant to look at
stopgap
something that you use or do for a short time while you are looking for something better
intern
1. to work as an intern
2. to put someone in prison during a war or for political reasons, although they have not been charged with a crime
taint
to damage or spoil the quality of something or the opinion that people have of someone or something
dread
to be very afraid of something; to fear that something bad is going to happen
insurrection
a situation in which a large group of people try to take political control of their own country with violence, uprising
rejuvenate
to make someone or something look or feel younger or more lively
monarch
a person who rules a country, for example a king or a queen
vengeance
the act of punishing or harming someone in return for what they have done to you, your family, or your friends, revenge
indelible
1. impossible to forget or remove, permanant
2. (of ink, pens, etc.) leaving a mark that cannot be removed, permanant
kindle
1. to start burning; to make a fire start burning
2. to make something such as an interest, emotion, etc. start to grow in someone; to start to be felt by someone
squarely
1. directly; not at an angle or to one side
2. directly or exactly; without confusion
careen
(of a person or vehicle) to move forward very quickly, especially in a way that is dangerous or uncontrolled, hurtle
exacerbate
to make something worse, especially a disease or problem, aggravate
galvanize
1. to make someone take action by shocking them or by making them excited
2. (technology) to cover metal with zinc in order to protect it from rust
derogate
to state that something or someone is without worth
pact
a formal agreement between two or more people, groups, or countries, especially one in which they agree to help each other
allegiance
a person's continued support for a political party, religion, ruler, etc.
accomplice
a person who helps another to commit a crime or to do something wrong
sympathizer
a person who supports or approves of someone or something, especially a political cause or party
evacuate
1. to move people from a place of danger to a safer place
2. to move out of a place because of danger, and leave the place empty
bipolar disorder
조울증
surveillance
the act of carefully watching a person suspected of a crime or a place where a crime may be committed, observation
pronounce
1. to make the sound of a word or letter in a particular way
2. to say or give something formally, officially, or publicly
notify
to formally or officially tell someone about something, inform
perpetrate
to commit a crime or do something wrong or evil
condemn
1. to express very strong disapproval of someone or something, usually for moral reasons
2. to say what someone's punishment will be
3. [usually passive] to force someone to accept a difficult or unpleasant situation, doom
vigil
a period of time when people stay awake, especially at night, in order to watch a sick person, say prayers, protest, etc.
condolence
sympathy that you feel for someone when a person in their family or that they know well has died; an expression of this sympathy
reasseart
1. to make other people recognize again your right or authority to do something, after a period when this has been in doubt
2. to start to have an effect again, after a period of not having any effect
household name
a name that has become very well known
lucrative
producing a large amount of money; making a large profit
write off
(business) to cancel a debt; to recognize that something is a failure, has no value, etc.
for one's part
자기로서는, 자기에 관한 한
suitor
1. (old-fashioned) a man who wants to marry a particular woman
2. (business) a company that wants to buy another company
slash
1. to make a long cut with a sharp object, especially in a violent way
2. (often used in newspapers) to reduce something by a large amount
powerhouse
1. a group or an organization that has a lot of power
2. a person or team that is very successful, especially in sports; a place that produces successful players and teams
de facto
existing as a fact although it may not be legally accepted as existing
mission statement
an official statement of the aims of a company or an organization
courtship
1. (old-fashioned) the time when two people have a romantic relationship before they get married; the process of developing this relationship
2. [uncountable] the special way animals behave in order to attract a mate for producing young animals
3. (formal) the process or act of attracting a business partner, etc.
endorse
1. to say publicly that you support a person, statement, or course of action
2. to say in an advertisement that you use and like a particular product so that other people will want to buy it
grapple
1. to take a firm hold of someone or something and struggle with them
2. to try hard to find a solution to a problem
compassion
a strong feeling of sympathy for people who are suffering and a desire to help them
stigma
feelings of disapproval that people have about particular illnesses or ways of behaving
bring something to the fore
to make something become noticed by people
call for
1. to need something
2. to publicly ask for something to happen
transfusion
1. the process of putting new blood into the body of a person or an animal, blood transfusuion
2. the act of investing extra money in a place or an activity that needs it
lift
1. to raise someone or something or be raised to a higher position or level
4. to remove or end restrictions
fallible
able to make mistakes or be wrong
hetrosexual
이성애자
ascertain
to find out the true or correct information about something
promiscuous
1. having many sexual partners
2. (formal) taken from a wide range of sources, especially without careful thought
gape
1. to stare at someone or something with your mouth open because you are shocked or surprised
2. to be or become wide open
caliber
1. the quality of something, especially a person's ability
2. the width of the inside of a tube or gun; the width of a bullet
drill
1. a tool or machine with a pointed end for making holes
2. a way of learning something by means of repeated exercises
3. a practice of what to do in an emergency, for example if there is a fire
assailant
a person who attacks someone, especially physically, attacker
trauma
1. (psychology) a mental condition caused by severe shock, especially when the harmful effects last for a long time
2. an unpleasant experience that makes you feel upset and/or anxious
3. (medical) an injury
summon
1. (formal) to order someone to appear in court
2. (formal) to order someone to come to you
assess
1. to make a judgment about the nature or quality of someone or something
2. to calculate the amount or value of something
jumble
to mix things together in a confused or messy way
derivative
a word or thing that has been developed or produced from another word or thing
prescribe
1. (of a doctor) to tell someone to take a particular medicine or have a particular treatment; to write a prescription for a particular medicine, etc.
2. (of a person or an organization with authority) to say what should be done or how something should be done
indecipherable
(of writing or speech) impossible to read or understand
foray
1. an attempt to become involved in a different activity or profession
2. a short sudden attack made by a group of soldiers
3. a short journey to find a particular thing or to visit a new place
construe
to understand the meaning of a word, a sentence, or an action in a particular way
naysayer
a person who opposes or expresses doubts about something
concede
1. to admit that something is true, logical, etc.
2. to give something away, especially unwillingly; to allow someone to have something
3. to admit that you have lost a game, an election, etc.
coy
1. shy or pretending to be shy and innocent, especially about love or sex, and sometimes in order to make people more interested in you
2. not willing to give information about something, or answer questions that tell people too much about you, reticent
courteous
polite, especially in a way that shows respect
propriety
1. moral and social behavior that is considered to be correct and acceptable
2. [plural] the rules of correct behavior
civility
1. [uncountable] polite behavior
2. [plural] remarks that are said only in order to be polite
hapless
not lucky; unfortunate
sycophant
(formal)(disapproving) a person who praises important or powerful people too much and in a way that is not sincere, especially in order to get something from them
detractor
a person who tries to make someone or something seem less good or valuable by criticizing it
belittle
to make someone or the things that someone does seem unimportant
congenial
1. (of a person) pleasant to spend time with because their interests and character are similar to your own
2. (of a place, job, etc.) pleasant because it suits your character
3. (formal) suitable for something
decoy
1. an animal or a bird, or a model of one, that attracts other animals or birds, especially so that they can be shot by people who are hunting them
2. a thing or a person that is used to trick someone into doing what you want them to do; going where you want them to go, etc.
herecy
1. a belief or an opinion that is against the principles of a particular religion; the fact of holding such beliefs
2. belief or an opinion that disagrees strongly with what most people believe
ostensible
seeming or stated to be real or true, when this is perhaps not the case, apparent
sect
a small group of people who belong to a particular religion but who have some beliefs or practices that separate them from the rest of the group
incendiary
1. designed to cause fires
2. (formal) causing strong feelings or violence
hydraulic
1. (of water, oil, etc.) moved through pipes, etc. under pressure
2. of a piece of machinery) operated by liquid moving under pressure
dialogue
1. conversations in a book, play, or movie
2. a formal discussion between two groups or countries, especially when they are trying to solve a problem, end a disagreement, etc.
disenfranchise
to take away someone's rights, especially their right to vote
go astray
1. to become lost; to be stolen
2. to go in the wrong direction or to have the wrong result
hot button
a subject or issue that people have strong feelings about and argue about a lot
unmoved
not feeling sympathy or emotions, especially in a situation where it would be normal to do so
down in the dumps
(informal) feeling unhappy
on a roll
(도박에서) 계속 이겨, 승운을 타서; 순조롭게
jinx
bad luck; someone or something that is thought to bring bad luck in a mysterious way
a figment of somebody's imagination
something that someone has imagined and that does not really exist
openhanded
generous and giving willingly
constituent
1. a person who lives, and can vote in a constituency
2. one of the parts of something that combine to form the whole
parsimonious
extremely unwilling to spend money
tactless
saying or doing things that are likely to annoy or to upset other people
admonition
a warning to someone about their behavior
admonish
1. to tell someone firmly that you do not approve of something that they have done, reprove
2. to strongly advise someone to do something
tantamount
having the same bad effect as something else
immutable
that cannot be changed; that will never change, unchangeable
shiftless
lazy and having no ambition to succeed in life
plastic (adj)
2. (of a material or substance) easily formed into different shapes, malleable
3. (disapproving) that seems artificial; not real or sincere
dabble
1. to take part in a sport, an activity, etc., but not very seriously
2. to move your hands, feet, etc. around in water
fledgling
a person, an organization, or a system that is new and without experience
consummate (adj.)
extremely skilled; perfect
narcotic
a powerful illegal drug that affects the mind in a harmful way. heroin and cocaine are narcotics
poppy
a wild or garden plant, with a large delicate flower that is usually red, and small black seeds. opium is obtained from one type of ~~~, 양귀피
pod
a long thin case filled with seeds that develops from the flowers of some plants, especially peas and beans
slit
(n) a long narrow cut or opening
(v) to make a long narrow cut or opening in something
sap
(n) the liquid in a plant or tree that carries food to all its parts
(v) to make something or someone weaker; to destroy something gradually
seep
(especially of liquids) to flow slowly and in small quantities through something or into something, trickle
starch
a white carbohydrate food substance found in potatoes, flour, rice, etc.; food containing this
sniff
1. to breathe air in through your nose in a way that makes a sound, especially when you are crying, have a cold, etc.
2. to breathe air in through the nose in order to discover or enjoy the smell of something
snort
1. to make a loud sound by breathing air out noisily through your nose, especially to show that you are angry or amused
2. to take drugs by breathing them in through the nose
ingest
to take food, drugs, etc. into your body, usually by swallowing
extremity
1. the furthest point, end or limit of something
2. the degree to which a situation, a feeling, an action, etc. is extreme, difficult, or unusual
3. [plural] (formal) the parts of your body that are furthest from the center, especially your hands and feet
wakeful
1. not sleeping; unable to sleep
2. (of a period at night) spent with little or no sleep
drowsy
1. tired and almost asleep
2. making you feel relaxed and tired
nausea
the feeling that you have when you want to vomit, for example because you are sick or are disgusted by something
abortion
1. the deliberate ending of a pregnancy at an early stage
2. a medical operation to end a pregnancy so that the baby is not born alive
inflammation
a condition in which a part of the body becomes red, sore, and swollen because of infection or injury
prop
1. a piece of wood, metal, etc. used to support something or keep it in position
2. a person or thing that gives help or support to someone or something that is weak
ahead of/behind time
earlier/later than was expected
mug(v)
to attack someone violently in order to steal their money, especially in a public place
nuisance
a thing, person, or situation that is annoying or causes trouble or problems
ornate
covered with a lot of decoration, especially when this involves very small or complicated designs
excruciating
extremely painful or bad
take with
...에게 인기가 있다, 평판이 좋다, Chocolates take with little kids.
inimical
1. harmful to something; not helping something
2. unfriendly
apotheosis
1. the highest or most perfect development or example of something
2. best time in someone's life or career
3. a formal statement that a person has become a god
vicissitude
one of the many changes and problems in a situation or in your life, that you have to deal with
singular
1. (formal) very great or obvious
2. (literary) unusual; strange, eccentric
communicate
2. to make your ideas, feelings, thoughts, etc. known to other people so that they understand them
pugilist
(old-fashioned) a boxer
doyennes
the most respected or most experienced woman member of a group or profession
inspect
1. to look closely at something or someone, especially to check that everything is as it should be
2. to officially visit a school, factory, etc. in order to check that rules are being obeyed and that standards are acceptable
loom
1. to appear as a large shape that is not clear, especially in a frightening or threatening way
2. to appear important or threatening and likely to happen soon
second-guess
1. to criticize someone after a decision has been made; to criticize something after it has happened
2. to guess what someone will do before they do it
compliant
1. willing to agree with other people or to obey rules
2. (disapproving) too willing to agree with other people or to obey rules
mold
3. a soft green, gray, or black substance like fur that grows on old food or on objects that are left in warm wet air
1. a container that you pour a liquid or soft substance into, which then becomes solid in the same shape as the container, for example when it is cooled or cooked
wreath
an arrangement of flowers and leaves, especially in the shape of a circle, placed on graves, etc. as a sign of respect for someone who has died
skirmish
1. a short fight between small groups of soldiers, etc., especially one that is not planned
2. a short argument, especially between political opponents
lodge
1. to make a formal statement about something to a public organization or authority
2. to become fixed or stuck somewhere; to make something become fixed or stuck somewhere
3. to leave money or something valuable in a safe place
4. to provide someone with a place to sleep or live
mollify
cause to be more favorably inclined
recover
1. to get well again after being sick, hurt, etc.
2. to get back the same amount of money that you spent or that is owed to you
3. to get back or find something that was lost, stolen, or missing
ram
(of a vehicle, a ship, etc.) to drive into or hit another vehicle, ship, etc. with force, sometimes deliberately
stand up to
1. (someone) to resist someone; to not accept bad treatment from someone without complaining
2. (of materials, products, etc.) to remain in good condition despite rough treatment
reclaim
to get something back or to ask to have it back after it has been lost, taken away, etc.
arbitration
the official process of settling an argument or a disagreement by someone who is not involved
claimant
1. a person who claims something because they believe they have a right to it
2. a person who is receiving money from the state because they are unemployed, etc.
sovereignty
1. complete power to govern a country
2. the state of being a country with freedom to govern itself
tow
to pull a car or boat behind another vehicle, using a rope or chain
eclectic
selecting what seems best from a variety of styles or ideas
port
1. a town or city with a harbor, especially one where ships load and unload goods
2. a place where ships load and unload goods or shelter from storms
board
1. to get on a ship, train, plane, bus, etc.
2. when a plane or ship is boarding, it is ready for passengers to get on
3. to live and take meals in someone's home, in return for payment
custody
1. the legal right or duty to take care of or keep someone or something; the act of taking care of something or someone
2. the state of being in prison, especially while waiting for trial
nautical
connected with ships, sailors, and sailing
compel
1. to force someone to do something; to make something necessary
2. (not used in the progressive tenses) to cause a particular reaction
embassy
대사관
commodity
1. (economics) a product or a raw material that can be bought and sold
2. a thing that is useful or has a useful quality
comply
to obey a rule, an order, etc.
strain
1. pressure on someone or something because they have too much to do or manage, or something very difficult to deal with; the problems, worry, or anxiety that this produces
2. the pressure that is put on something when a physical force stretches, pushes, or pulls it
3. an injury to a part of your body, such as a muscle, that is caused by using it too much or by twisting it
compendium
a publication containing a variety of works
scuttle
1. to run with quick, short steps
2. to deliberately cause something to fail
3. to sink a ship deliberately by making holes in the side or bottom of it
referendum
an occasion when all the people of a country or state can vote on an important issue
prioritize
1. to put tasks, problems, etc. in order of importance, so that you can deal with the most important first
2. (formal) to treat something as being more important than other things
veer
1. (especially of a vehicle) to change direction suddenly
2. (of a conversation or way of behaving or thinking) to change in the way it develops
manifestation
an event, action, or thing that is a sign that something exists or is happening; the act of appearing as a sign that something exists or is happening
bail
(n) money that someone agrees to pay if a person accused of a crime does not appear at their trial. When bail has been arranged, the accused person is allowed to go free until the trial
(v) to release someone on bail
spawn
(v1) (of fish, frogs, etc.) to lay eggs
(v2) (often disapproving) to cause something to develop or be produced
(n) a soft substance containing the eggs of fish, frogs, etc.
subtext
a hidden meaning or reason for doing something
subliminal
affecting your mind even though you are not aware of it
tabloid
a newspaper with small pages (usually half the size of those in larger papers) with short articles and a lot of pictures and stories about famous people, often thought of as less serious than other newspapers
swarm
1. a large group of insects, especially bees, moving together in the same direction
2. a large group of people, especially when they are all moving quickly in the same direction, horde
lop
to cut down a tree, or cut some large branches off it
irreparable
(of a loss, injury, etc.) too bad or too serious to repair or put right
chop off
to remove something by cutting it with a sharp tool
reconciliation
1. an end to a disagreement and the start of a good relationship again
2. the process of making it possible for two different ideas, facts, etc. to exist together without being opposed to each other
perverse
showing deliberate determination to behave in a way that most people think is wrong, unacceptable, or unreasonable
rest on something
to be based on something
pardon (v)
1. to officially allow someone who has been found guilty of a crime to leave prison and/or avoid punishment
2. to forgive someone for something they have said or done (used in many expressions when you want to be polite)
long
to want something very much especially if it does not seem likely to happen soon, yearn
inexplicable
that cannot be understood or explained
fetch
(old-fashioned) to go to where someone or something is and bring them/it back
daub
to spread a substance such as paint, mud, etc., thickly and/or carelessly onto something
for good
permanently, ans = for good
intimacy
1. the state of having a close personal relationship with someone
2. a thing that a person says or does to someone that they know very well
glut
(v) to supply or provide something with too much of something
(n) a situation in which there is more of something than is needed or can be used
fancy (v)
1. (informal) used to show that you are surprised or shocked by something
2. (literary) to believe or imagine something
call somebody to account (for/over something)
to make someone explain a mistake, etc. because they are responsible for it
delude
to make someone believe something that is not true
deprive somebody/something of something
to prevent someone from having or doing something, especially something important
adage
a well-known phrase expressing a general truth about people or the world, saying
reproach
(n1) blame or criticism for something you have done
(n2) a word or remark expressing blame or criticism
(v1) to blame or criticize someone for something that they have done or not done, because you are disappointed in them
(v2) to feel guilty about something that you think you should have done in a different way
offer something/somebody (up) (to somebody)
(formal) to give something to God
waver
1. to be or become weak or unsteady
2. to hesitate and be unable to make a decision or choice
trifle with
(used especially in negative sentences) to treat someone or something without genuine respect
rendezvous
1. an arrangement to meet someone at a particular time and place
2. a place where people have arranged to meet
on the spur of the moment
suddenly, without planning in advance
improvident
not thinking about or planning for the future; spending money in a careless way
scrupulous
1. careful about paying attention to every detail, meticulous
2. careful to be honest and do what is right
roundly
strongly or by a large number of people
bequeath
1. to say in a will that you want someone to have your property, money, etc. after you die
2. to leave the results of your work, knowledge, etc. for other people to use or deal with, especially after you have died
stipulate
to state clearly and firmly that something must be done, or how it must be done
intrude
1. to go or be somewhere where you are not wanted or are not supposed to be
2. to disturb something or have an unpleasant effect on it
repellent
(formal) very unpleasant; causing strong dislike, repulsive
hitherto
until now; until the particular time you are talking about
emanate
to produce or show something
alibi
evidence that proves that a person was in another place at the time of a crime and so could not have committed it
comical
funny or amusing, especially because of being strange or unexpected
doze
to sleep lightly for a short time, 졸다
doze off
to go to sleep, especially during the day, 깜빡졸다
rouse
1. (formal) to wake someone up, especially when they are sleeping deeply
2. to make someone want to start doing something when they were not active or interested in doing it
3. (formal) to make someone feel a particular emotion
4. to make someone angry, excited, or full of emotion
squint
to look at something with your eyes partly shut in order to keep out bright light or to see better
fling
1. to throw someone or something somewhere with force, especially because you are angry
2. to move yourself or part of your body suddenly and with a lot of force
3. to say something to someone in an aggressive way
artless
simple and natural; without cunning or deceit
packet
1. a small paper container in which goods are packed for selling
2. a set of documents that are supplied together for a particular purpose
rummage
to move things around carelessly while searching for something
conspire
1. to secretly plan with other people to do something illegal or harmful
2. (of events) to seem to work together to make something bad happen
polygamy
the custom of having more than one wife at the same time
not in the least
not at all, ans= not in the least
disavow
to state publicly that you have no knowledge of something or that you are not responsible for something or someone
chatter
1. to talk quickly and continuously, especially about things that are not important
2. (of teeth) to knock together continuously because you are cold or frightened
pounce on
to quickly notice something that someone has said or done, especially in order to criticize it
put up something
to show a particular level of skill, determination, etc. in a fight or contest
foul
1. dirty and smelling bad
2. very unpleasant; very bad
3. (of language) including rude words and swearing
postulate
to suggest or accept that something is true so that it can be used as the basis for a theory, etc.
wail
1. to make a long, loud, high cry because you are sad or in pain
2. to cry or complain about something in a loud high voice
hearse
a long vehicle used for carrying the coffin (= the box for the dead body) at a funeral
appall
to shock someone very much
elapse
(formal) if a period of time elapses, it passes
way out
a way of escaping from a difficult situation
discreet
careful in what you say or do, in order to keep something secret or to avoid causing embarrassment or difficulty for someone, tactful
divulge
to give someone information that is supposed to be secret
idyllic
peaceful and beautiful; perfect, without problems
intercourse
1. the physical activity of sex between two people
2. (old-fashioned) communication between people, countries, etc.
hasten
1. to say or do something without delay
2. (formal) to make something happen sooner or more quickly
3. (literary) to go or move somewhere quickly
on all fours
(of a person) bent over with hands and knees on the ground
libertine
a person, usually a man, who leads an immoral life and is interested in pleasure, especially sexual pleasure
get back at
to do something bad to someone who has done something bad to you; to get revenge on someone
in a bind
in a difficult situation that you do not know how to get out of
diverge
move or draw apart
loath
not willing to do something
unannounced
happening without anyone being told or warned in advance
physician
a doctor, especially one who is a specialist in general medicine and not surgery
strike up something (with somebody)
to begin a friendship, a relationship, a conversation, etc.
divest
take away possessions from someone
trance
1. a state in which someone seems to be asleep but is aware of what is said to them, for example if they are hypnotized
2. a state in which you are thinking so much about something that you do not notice what is happening around you
nonchalant
behaving in a calm and relaxed way; giving the impression that you are not feeling any anxiety, casual
stutter
to have difficulty speaking because you cannot stop yourself from repeating the first sound of some words several times
culprit
1. a person who has done something wrong or against the law
2. a person or thing responsible for causing a problem
irreconcilable
1. if differences or disagreements are irreconcilable, they are so great that it is not possible to settle them
2. if an idea or opinion is irreconcilable with another, it is impossible for someone to have both of them together
sledgehammer
a large heavy hammer with a long handle
buck up
1. (often in orders) to become more cheerful
2. to make someone more cheerful
lug
to carry or drag something heavy with a lot of effort
the likes of somebody/something
(informal) used to refer to someone or something that is considered as a type, especially one that is considered as good as someone or something else
presumptuous
too confident, in a way that shows a lack of respect for other people
excuse (v)
1. to forgive someone for something that they have done, for example not being polite or making a small mistake
2. to make your or someone else's behavior seem less offensive by finding reasons for it
abhorrent
causing hatred, especially for moral reasons
inextricable
too closely linked to be separated
metaphysics
the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of existence, truth, and knowledge
gauge (v)
1. to make a judgment about something, especially people's feelings or attitudes
2. to measure something accurately using a special instrument
slumber
(n) sleep; a time when someone is asleep
(v) to sleep
consummate
extremely skilled; perfect
out of hand
1. difficult or impossible to control
2. if you reject, etc. something out of hand, you do so immediately without thinking about it fully or listening to other people's arguments
consultation
1. the act of discussing something with someone or with a group of people before making a decision about it
2. a formal meeting to discuss something
rumble
1. to make a long, deep sound or series of sounds
2. to move slowly and heavily, making a rumbling sound
diatribe
thunderous verbal attack
alien
1. strange and frightening; different from what you are used to
2. (often disapproving) from another country or society; foreign
shroud
(v1) (of darkness, clouds, cloth, etc.) to cover or hide something
(v2) to hide information or keep it secret and mysterious
peek
to look at something quickly and secretly because you should not be looking at it
bowel
1. the tube along which food passes after it has been through the stomach, especially the end where waste is collected before it is passed out of the body (medical)
2. (the bowels of something) (literary) the part that is deepest inside something
jubilation
a feeling of great happiness because of a success
extol
to praise someone or something very much
callus
굳은살
pram
유모차
swindle
to cheat someone in order to get something, especially money, from them
downcast
1. (of eyes) looking down
2. (of a person or an expression) sad or depressed, dejected
spell (n)
a short period of time during which something lasts
penance
(especially in particular religions) an act that you give yourself to do, or that a priest gives you to do, in order to show that you are sorry for something you have done wrong
fluke
a lucky or unusual thing that happens by accident, not because of planning or skill
make out (with somebody)
(informal) to kiss and touch someone in a sexual way
boon
something that is very helpful and makes life easier for you
start over
to begin again
inmate
one of the people living in an institution such as a prison or a mental hospital
impound
1. (of the police, courts of law, etc.) to take something away from someone, so that they cannot use it, confiscate
2. to shut up dogs, cats, etc. found on the streets in a pound, until their owners collect them
bust (v)
1. to break something
2. (of the police) to suddenly enter a place and search it, or arrest someone
3. to make someone lower in military rank as a punishment
jerk somebody around
to make things difficult for someone, especially by not being honest with them
pick on somebody/something
1. to treat someone unfairly, by blaming, criticizing, or punishing them
2. to choose someone or something
intervene
1. to become involved in a situation in order to improve or help it
2. to interrupt someone when they are speaking in order to say something
3. to happen in a way that delays something or prevents it from happening
squish
1. if something soft squishes or is squished, it is crushed out of shape when it is pressed
2. to make a soft, wet, sucking sound
neurosis
(medical) a mental illness in which a person suffers strong feelings of fear and worry
harp on (about something) | harp on something
to keep talking about something in a boring or annoying way
smirk
to smile in a silly or unpleasant way that shows that you are pleased with yourself, know something that other people do not know, etc.
icky
(informal) unpleasant (used especially about something that is wet and sticky)
nag
1. (disapproving) to keep complaining to someone about their behavior or keep asking them to do something
2. to worry or irritate you continuously
ring (v)
4. [intransitive] ring (with something); to be full of a particular quality
yearn
to want something very much, especially when it is very difficult to get, long
emancipate
to free someone, especially from legal, political, or social restrictions
reconcile
1. to find an acceptable way of dealing with two or more ideas, needs, etc. that seem to be opposed to each other
2. to make people become friends again after an argument or a disagreement
apprehensive
worried or frightened that something unpleasant may happen
penalize
1. to punish someone for breaking a rule or law by making them suffer a disadvantage
2. to put someone at a disadvantage by treating them unfairly
efface
to make something disappear; to remove something
weave
1. to make cloth, a carpet, a basket, etc. by crossing threads or strips over and under each other by hand or on a machine called aloom
4. to move along by running and changing direction continuously to avoid things that are in your way
sag
1. to hang or bend down in the middle, especially because of weight or pressure
2. to become weaker or fewer
pancreas
췌장
emblem
1. a design or picture that represents a country or an organization
2. something that represents a perfect example or a principle
wiles
tricks that someone uses in order to get what they want or to make someone behave in a particular way
alight (v)
1. (of a bird or an insect) to land in or on something after flying to it
2. to get out of a bus, a train, or other vehicle
lackluster
not interesting or exciting; dull
nascent
beginning to exist; not yet fully developed
halo
(in paintings, etc.) a circle of light shown around or above the head of a holy person
scrutinize
to criticize or blame someone because they have done something wrong
come down with something
to get an illness that is not very serious
mortify
to make someone feel very ashamed or embarrassed
tenacious
1. that does not stop holding something or give up something easily; determined
2. continuing to exist, have influence, etc. for longer than you might expect
reserve
(v1) to ask for a seat, table, room, etc. to be available for you or someone else at a future time
(v2) to keep something for someone or something, so that it cannot be used by any other person or for any other reason
(n1) a supply of something that is available to be used in the future or when it is needed
(n2) the quality that someone has when they do not talk easily to other people about their ideas, feelings, etc.
frenzied
involving a lot of activity and strong emotions in a way that is often violent or frightening and not under control
precarious
1. (of a situation) not safe or certain; dangerous
2. likely to fall or cause someone to fall
coax
to persuade someone to do something by talking to them in a kind and gentle way
mope
to spend your time doing nothing and feeling sorry for yourself
prodding
encouragement to do something
incredulous
not willing or not able to believe something; showing an inability to believe something
from the outset
시작부터
rejoice
to express great happiness about something
conceit
1. (disapproving) too much pride in yourself and what you do
2. (formal) an artistic effect or device, especially one that is very clever or tries to be very clever but does not succeed
3. (technology) a clever expression in writing or speech that involves a comparison between two things
morbid
having or expressing a strong interest in sad or unpleasant things, especially disease or death
berserk
1. very angry, often in a violent or uncontrolled way
2. very excited
heed
to pay careful attention to someone's advice or warning
gall (v)
to make someone feel upset and angry, especially because something is unfair
malice
a feeling of hatred for someone that causes a desire to harm them, spite
spite
a feeling of wanting to hurt or upset someone, malice
teeter
to stand or move in an unsteady way so that you look as if you are going to fall
in the grip of
experiencing something unpleasant that cannot be stopped
hermaphrodite
a person, an animal, or a flower that has both male and female sexual organs or characteristics
impeccable
without mistakes or faults
lurk
1. to wait somewhere secretly, especially because you are going to do something bad or illegal
2. when something unpleasant or dangerous lurks, it is present but not in an obvious way
tongue-tied
not able to speak because you are shy or nervous
antipathy
a feeling of intense dislike
dignitary
a person who has an important official position
bidding
1. the act of offering prices, especially at an auction
2. the act of offering to do something or to provide something for a particular price
enchant
(formal) to attract someone strongly and make them feel very interested, excited, etc.
timorous
nervous and easily frightened, timid
dispel
to make something, especially a feeling or belief, go away or disappear
liquidate
1. to close a business and sell everything it owns in order to pay debts
2. to destroy or remove someone or something that causes problems, annihilate
fabricate
1. to invent false information in order to trick people
2. (technology) to make or produce goods, equipment, etc. from various different materials
brief
to give someone information about something so that they are prepared to deal with it
hit on somebody
to start talking to someone to show them that you are sexually attracted to them
pivotal
of great importance because other things depend on it
pun
the smart or humorous use of a word that has more than one meaning, or of words that have different meanings but sound the same
gimmick
an unusual trick or unnecessary device that is intended to attract attention or to persuade people to buy something
tenant
a person who pays rent for the use of a room, building, land, etc. to the person who owns it
anachronism
a person, a custom, or an idea that seems old-fashioned and does not belong to the present
pore over something
to look at or read something very carefully
verdict
1. a decision that is made by a jury in court, stating if someone is considered guilty of a crime or not
2. a decision that you make or an opinion that you give about something, after you have tested it or considered it carefully
dupe
to trick or cheat someone
compartment
1. one of the separate sections that something such as a piece of furniture or equipment has for keeping things in
2. one of the separate sections which a car on a train is divided into
overture
1. a piece of music written as an introduction to an opera or a ballet
2. a suggestion or an action by which someone tries to make friends, start a business relationship, have discussions, etc. with someone else
muster
1. to find as much support, courage, etc. as you can
2. to come together; to bring people, especially soldiers, together, for example for military action
anguish
severe pain, mental suffering, or unhappiness
transgress
to go beyond the limit of what is morally or legally acceptable
thrash
1. to hit a person or an animal many times with a stick, etc. as a punishment
2. to move or make something move in a violent or uncontrolled way
appropriate (v)
1. to take something, someone's ideas, etc. for your own use, especially illegally or without permission
2. to take or give something, especially money for a particular purpose
sovereign (adj.)
1. (of a country or state) free to govern itself; completely independent, autonomous
2. having complete power or the greatest power in the country
obscene
connected with sex in a way that most people find offensive
abyss
very deep wide space or hole that seems to have no bottom
semantic
connected with the meaning of words and sentences
lexicon
(linguistics) all the words and phrases used in a particular language or subject; all the words and phrases used and known by a particular person or group of people
not trying to hide what you think or do
1. not trying to hide what you think or do, frank, honest
2. paid in advance, before other payments are made
tantrum
a sudden short period of angry, unreasonable behavior, especially in a child
livid
extremely angry, furious
impervious
1. not affected or influenced by something
2. (technology) not allowing a liquid or gas to pass through
scoff
to talk about someone or something in a way that makes it clear that you think they are stupid or ridiculous, mock
turn on somebody
to attack someone suddenly and unexpectedly
counsel (n)
1. (formal) advice, especially given by older people or experts; a piece of advice
2. (law) a lawyer or group of lawyers representing someone in court
tribunal
a type of court with the authority to deal with a particular problem or disagreement
save somebody's bacon/neck
(informal) to rescue someone from a very difficult situation
gullible
too willing to believe or accept what other people tell you and therefore easily tricked, naive
convene
1. to arrange for people to come together for a formal meeting
2. to come together for a formal meeting
sanity
1. the state of having a normal healthy mind
2. the state of being sensible and reasonable
pompous
showing that you think you are more important than other people, especially by using long and formal words, pretentious
vortex
1. (technology) a mass of air, water, etc. that spins around very fast and pulls things into its center
2. (literary) a very powerful feeling or situation that you cannot avoid or escape from
adjourn
to stop a meeting or an official process, especially a trial, for a period of time
rehabilitate
1. to help someone to have a normal, useful life again after they have been very sick or in prison for a long time
2. to begin to consider that someone is good or acceptable after a long period during which they were considered bad or unacceptable
fraud
1. the crime of cheating someone in order to get money or goods illegally
2. a person who pretends to have qualities, abilities, etc. that they do not really have in order to cheat other people
remnant
a part of something that is left after the other parts have been used, removed, destroyed, etc.
midget
(offensive) an extremely small person, who will never grow to a normal size because of a physical problem; a person suffering from dwarfism
infatuated
having a very strong feeling of love or attraction for someone or something so that you cannot think clearly and in a sensible way
all sizzle and no steak
(label, en, idiomatic) A thing or person which fails to measure up to its description or advanced promotion.
lay off
(informal) used to tell someone to stop doing something
aberrant
markedly different from an accepted norm
outcast
a person who is not accepted by other people and who sometimes has to leave their home and friends
devious
behaving in a dishonest or indirect way, or tricking people, in order to get something
meek
quiet, gentle, and always ready to do what other people want without expressing your own opinion
anarchist
a person who believes that laws and governments are not necessary
atheist
a person who believes that God does not exist
agnostic
a person who believes that it is not possible to know whether God exists or not
booty
1. [uncountable] valuable things that are stolen, especially by soldiers in a time of war
2. (informal) valuable things that someone wins, buys, or obtains
capsize
if a boat capsizes or something capsizes it, it turns over in the water
interrogate
1. to ask someone a lot of questions over a long period of time, especially in an aggressive way
2. (technology) to obtain information from a computer or other machine
hypocrite
a person who pretends to have moral standards or opinions that they do not actually have
vicious
1. violent and cruel
2. (of animals) aggressive and dangerous
3. (of an attack, criticism, etc.) full of hatred and anger
mask (v)
to hide a feeling, smell, fact, etc. so that it cannot be easily seen or noticed, disguise, veil
obliterate
to remove all signs of something, either by destroying or covering it completely
prowl
1. (of an animal) to move quietly and carefully around an area, especially when hunting
2. to move quietly and carefully around an area, especially with the intention of committing a crime
3. to walk around a room, an area, etc., especially because you are bored, anxious, etc., and cannot relax
levity
behavior that shows a lack of respect for something serious and that treats it in an amusing way, frivolity
vandalism
the crime of destroying or damaging something, especially public property, deliberately and for no good reason
pang
a sudden strong feeling of physical or emotional pain
run something by/past somebody
(informal) to show someone something or tell someone about an idea in order to see their reaction to it
skim
1. to remove fat, cream, etc. from the surface of a liquid
2. to move quickly and lightly over a surface, not touching it or only touching it occasionally
3. to read something quickly in order to find a particular point or the main points
apron
앞치마
petty
1. small and unimportant
2. caring too much about small and unimportant matters, especially when this is unkind to other people
misfit
a person who is not accepted by a particular group of people, especially because their behavior or their ideas are very different
pathological
1. not reasonable or sensible; impossible to control
2. caused by, or connected with, disease or illness
crafty
skilled at getting what you want, especially by indirect or dishonest methods, cunning, wily
unrepentant
showing no shame about your actions or beliefs
attorney
1. a lawyer, especially one who can act for someone in court
2. a person who is given the power to act on behalf of another in business or legal matters
retort
to reply quickly to a comment, in an angry, offended, or humorous way
bigoted
showing strong, unreasonable beliefs or opinions, and a refusal to change them
baptism
a Christian ceremony in which a few drops of water are poured on someone or they are covered with water, to welcome them into the Christian Church and often to name them
insensitive
1. not realizing or caring how other people feel, and therefore likely to hurt or offend them, unsympathetic
2. not aware of changing situations, and therefore of the need to react to them
3. not able to feel or react to something
preach
1. to give a religious talk in a public place, especially in a church during a service
2. to tell people about a particular religion, way of life, system, etc. in order to persuade them to accept it
commensurate
corresponding in size or degree or extent
horde
a large crowd of people
wage (v)
to begin and continue a war, a battle, etc.
in time
after a period of time when a situation has changed, eventually
clash
1. a short fight between two groups of people
2. an argument between two people or groups of people who have different beliefs and ideas
3. the difference that exists between two things that are opposed to each other
4. a loud noise made by two metal objects being hit together
standstill
a situation in which all activity or movement has stopped, halt
exile
(v) to force someone to leave their country, especially for political reasons or as a punishment; to send someone into exile
(n) the state of being sent to live in another country that is not your own, especially for political reasons or as a punishment
quarry
1. a place where large amounts of stone, etc. are dug out of the ground
2. an animal or a person that is being hunted or followed, prey
dispatch
1. (formal) to send someone or something somewhere, especially for a special purpose
2. (formal) to send a letter, package, or message somewhere
3. (formal) to deal or finish with someone or something quickly and completely
4. (old-fashioned) to kill a person or an animal
resilient
1. able to feel better quickly after something unpleasant such as shock, injury, etc.
2. (of a substance) returning to its original shape after being bent, stretched, or pressed
slay
(old-fashioned or literary) to kill someone or something in a war or a fight
harrowing
very shocking or frightening and making you feel very upset
overriding
more important than anything else in a particular situation
wither
1. if a plant withers or something withers it, it dries up and dies
2. to become less or weaker, especially before disappearing completely
whimper
to make low, weak crying noises; to speak in this way
asylum
protection that a government gives to people who have left their own country, usually because they were in danger for political reasons
potency
the power that someone or something has to affect your body or mind
breach
(n1) a failure to do something that must be done by law
(n2) an action that breaks an agreement to behave in a particular way
(v1) to not keep to an agreement or not keep a promise
(v2) to make a hole in a wall, fence, etc. so that someone or something can go through it
traitor
a person who gives away secrets about their friends, their country, etc.
squander
to waste money, time, etc. in a stupid or careless way
bicker
to argue about things that are not important, squabble
blunt
1. without a sharp edge or point
2. (of a person or remark) very direct; saying exactly what you think without trying to be polite
pawn (v)
1. a chess piece of the smallest size and least value. Each player has eight pawns at the start of a game.
2. a person or group whose actions are controlled by more powerful people
viral
like or caused by a virus
traverse
(technology) to cross an area of land or water
grisly
extremely unpleasant and frightening and usually connected with death and violence
subsume
to include something in a particular group and not consider it separately
undeterred
if someone is undeterred by something, they do not allow it to stop them from doing something
brethren
1. used to talk to people in church or to talk about the members of a male religious group
2. people who are part of the same society as yourself
deterrent
something immaterial that interferes with action or progress
purge
1. to remove people from an organization, often violently, because their opinions or activities are unacceptable to the people in power
2. (formal) to make yourself/someone or something pure, healthy, or clean by getting rid of bad thoughts or feelings
angst
a feeling of anxiety and worry about a situation, or about your life
embattled
1. surrounded by problems and difficulties
2. (of an army, a city, etc.) involved in war; surrounded by the enemy
afoot
being planned; happening
paranoid (adj.)
1. afraid or suspicious of other people and believing that they are trying to harm you, in a way that is not reasonable
2. suffering from a mental illness in which you wrongly believe that other people are trying to harm you or that you are very important
seal
(v1) to close an envelope, etc. by sticking the edges of the opening together
(v2) to close a container tightly or fill a crack, etc., especially so that air, liquid, etc. cannot get in or out
(v3) (of the police, army, etc.) to prevent people from passing through a place
surreal
very strange; more like a dream than reality, with ideas and images mixed together in a strange way
encapsulate
to express the most important parts of something in a few words, a small space, or a single object, sum up
hoax
an act intended to make someone believe something that is not true, especially something unpleasant
pedestrian (n, adj.)
a person walking in the street and not traveling in a vehicle
junta
a military government that has taken power by force
fend something/somebody off
1. to defend or protect yourself from something or someone that is attacking you
2. to protect yourself from difficult questions, criticisms, etc., especially by avoiding them
seismic
1. connected with or caused by earthquakes
2. having a very great effect; of very great size
outlet
1. a way of expressing or making good use of strong feelings, ideas, or energy
2. (business) a store or an organization that sells goods made by a particular company or of a particular type
epitome
a perfect example of something, embodiment
hush something up
to hide information about a situation because you do not want people to know about it
tycoon
a person who is successful in business or industry and has become rich and powerful
dissident
a person who strongly disagrees with and criticizes their government, especially in a country where this kind of action is dangerous
judiciary
the judges of a country or a state, when they are considered as a group
ration
1. a fixed amount of food, fuel, etc. that you are officially allowed to have when there is not enough for everyone to have as much as they want, for example during a war
2. a fixed amount of food given regularly to a soldier or to someone who is in a place where there is not much food available
assorted
of various different sorts
diabolical
1. morally bad and evil; like a devil
2. extremely bad or annoying
affiliate
(v1) to link a group, a company, or an organization very closely with another larger one
(v2) to join, to be connected with, or to work for an organization
(n) a company, an organization, etc. that is connected with or controlled by another larger one
swerve
(especially of a vehicle) to change direction suddenly, especially in order to avoid hitting someone or something
satirical
using satire to criticize someone or something
jihad
1. (in Islam) a spiritual struggle within yourself to stop yourself from breaking religious or moral laws
2. a holy war fought by Muslims to defend Islam
bona fide
genuine, real, or legal; not false
bona fides
evidence that someone is who they say that they are; evidence that someone or something is honest
recruit
(n) a person who has recently joined the armed forces or the police
(v1) to find new people to join a company, an organization, the armed forces, etc.
(v2) to persuade someone to do something, especially to help you
waive
to choose not to demand something in a particular case, even though you have a legal or official right to do so, forgo
hierarchy
a system, especially in a society or an organization, in which people are organized into different levels of importance from highest to lowest
discredit
1. to make people stop respecting someone or something
2. to make people stop believing that something is true; to make something appear unlikely to be true
promenade
1. a public place for walking, usually a wide path beside the ocean
2. a walk that you take for pleasure or exercise, especially by the ocean, in a public park, etc.
untruth
(formal) a lie. People often say'untruth'to avoid saying'lie.'
laud
to praise someone or something
hyperbole
a way of speaking or writing that makes something sound better, more exciting, dangerous, etc. than it really is, exaggeration
churn
1. if water, mud, etc. churns, or if something churns it (up), it moves or is moved around violently
2. if your stomach churns or if something churns your stomach, you feel a strong, unpleasant feeling of worry, disgust, or fear
churn something out
(informal)(often disapproving) to produce something quickly and in large amounts
fleece
to take a lot of money from someone by charging them too much
acute
1. very serious or severe
2. (of the senses) very sensitive and well developed
3. intelligent and quick to notice and understand things
4. (geometry) (of an angle) less than 90°
displace
1. to take the place of someone or something
2. to force people to move away from their home to another place
3. to move something from its usual position
4. to remove someone from a job or position
humanitarian
concerned with reducing suffering and improving the conditions that people live in
stronghold
1. an area in which there is a lot of support for a particular belief or group of people, especially a political party
2. a castle or a place that is strongly built and difficult to attack
rue
(formal) to feel bad about something that happened or something that you did because it had bad results, regret
zoning
a system of laws restricting how particular areas of land can be used and what can be built on the land
smear
1. to spread an oily or soft substance over a surface in a rough or careless way
2. to make something dirty or greasy
3. to damage someone's reputation by saying unpleasant things about them that are not true, slander
fib
(informal) a statement that is not true; a lie about something that is not important
tangle with
to become involved in an argument or a fight with someone or something
veracity
the quality of being true; the habit of telling the truth, truth
magnate
a person who is rich, powerful, and successful, especially in business
brazen
(disapproving) open and without shame, usually about something that people find shocking
bluff
(v) to try to make someone believe that you will do something that you do not really intend to do, or that you know something that you do not really know
(n) an attempt to trick someone by making them believe that you will do something when you really have no intention of doing it, or that you know something when you do not, in fact, know it
trickery
the use of dishonest methods to trick people in order to achieve what you want
echelon
a rank or position of authority in an organization or a society
probe
1. to ask questions in order to find out secret or hidden information about someone or something
2. to touch, examine, or look for something, especially with a long thin instrument
litigation
the process of making or defending a claim in court
cloak
a type of coat that has no sleeves, fastens at the neck, and hangs loosely from the shoulders, worn especially in the past
knock off something(informal)
to stop doing something, especially work
decapitate
to cut off someone's head
deference
behavior that shows that you respect someone or something
homophobia
a strong dislike and fear of homosexual people
juncture
1. a particular point or stage in an activity or a series of events
2. a place or point where two things are joined
devour
1. to eat all of something quickly, especially because you are very hungry, gobble up
2. to read or look at something with great interest and enthusiasm
3. (formal) to destroy someone or something, engulf
hive
a structure made for bees to live in
bent on something
bent on doing something
determined to do something (usually something bad)
marshal
1. a person responsible for making sure that public events, especially sports events and parades, take place without any problems, and for controlling crowds
2. an officer whose job is to put court orders into effect
3. (in some cities) an officer of high rank in a police or fire department
goad
to keep irritating or annoying someone or something until they react
ruthless
(of people or their behavior) hard and cruel; determined to get what you want and not caring if you hurt other people
reservation
2. a feeling of doubt about a plan or an idea
resolute
having or showing great determination, determined
reconvene
if a meeting, congress, parliament, etc. reconvenes or if someone reconvenes it, it meets again after a break
forsake
1. to leave someone or something, especially when you have a responsibility to stay, abandon
2. to stop doing something, or leave something, especially something that you enjoy, renounce
inadvertently
by accident; without intending to
sorely
seriously; very much
brand (v)
to describe someone as being something bad or unpleasant, especially unfairly
vouch for somebody/something
to say that you believe that someone will behave well and that you will be responsible for their actions
vanguard
1. the leaders of a movement in society, for example in politics, art, industry, etc.
2. the part of an army, etc. that is at the front when moving forward to attack the enemy
taunt
to try to make someone angry or upset by saying unkind things about them, laughing at their failures, etc.
scam
(informal) a dishonest plan for making money
molest
to attack someone, especially a child, sexually
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