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180 terms

a&p chapter 21

STUDY
PLAY
A cell that phagocytizes an antigen and displays fragments of it on its surface is a (n):
Antigen presenting cell (APC)
List cells that function as antigen presenting cells.
Dendritic cells, B cells, Macrophages.
Name the lymphocyte that mediates humoral immune responses, differentiating into an antibody-producing plasma cell.
B
The accumulation of dead cells, fluid and tissue debris is called.
Pus
Eosinophils secrete_____.
Superoxide
List the features of the skin that offer immunoprotection.
Presence of defensins, presence of lactic acid, continuous barrier to the external environment.
Name the characteristic of immunity describing how it is directed against a particular pathogen.
Specificity
A (n) ______ is a granulocyte, with a multilobed nucleau, that serves especially to destroy bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracellular digestion, and secretion of bactericidal chemicals.
neutrophil
The _____ line of defense consists of several nonspecific defense mechanisms against pathogens that break through the skin or mucous membranes.
Second
The cardinal signs/symptoms of inflammation include:
Edema, redness, heat, pain
Name the plasma proteins that make powerful contributions to both nonspecific resistence and specific immunity.
Complement
The white blood cell that produces antibodies is the _____ cel.
B
List the functions of a lymph node.
Filtration of lymph, site of B and T cell activation.
The _____ line of defense consists of external barriers, notably the skin and mucous membranes, which are impenetrable to most of the pathogens that daily assault us.
first
A disease-causing organism of chemical is generally called a _____.
Pathogen.
Name the leukocyte that would help a patient combat a parasitic tapeworm infection.
Eosinophil.
Pus is formed of:
Dead neutrophils and macrophages
Name the bilobed lymphatic organ that is located in the mediastinum.
thymus
The fluid contained in lymphatic vessels, which originates as tissure fluid, is called _____.
Lymph
List examples of antimicrobial proteins.
Complement, Interferon, defensins.
Name the type of white blood cell that functions to produce antibodies.
Plasma cells
Name the granulocyte with coarse cytoplasmic granules that produces heparin, histamine, and other chemicals involved in inflammation.
Basophil
Abnormal accumulation of non-inflammatory tissue fluid resulting iin swelling of the tissue is known as ____.
Edema
Describe a neutrophil
Multibodied nucleus with cytoplasmic granules
What are the main functions of the lymphatic system?
Absorption of lipids, immunity, fluid recovery from tissues
______ T cells attack and destroy infected body cells, cancerous cells, and the cells of transplanted tissues by secreting perforins and granzymes.
Cytotoxic
Name the body system that functions to maintain fluid balance in the tissue, absorbs lipids, and protects the body against pathogens.
Lymphatic system.
Interferons, complement, defensin and granzymes are examples of:
Antimicrobial proteins
The thymus is considered part of several body systems. Name these.
Immune system, endocrine system, lymphatic system.
Any larege molecule capable triggering an immune response is called a(n). ______.
antigen
Name the large lymphatic organ located near the diaphragm, stomach, and left kidney.
spleen
True or false: Both lymphatic tissues and lymphatic organs have distinct connective tissue capsules surrounding them.
False
______ lymphocytes are the primary cell type involved in humoral immunity.
B
List secondary lyphoid organs.
Spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils.
Name the leukocyte that functions as an antibody-producing cell.
Plasma cell
The ____ ____ cell is a lymphatic cell that functions to non-specifically target bacteria, transplanted tissue cells, and virally infected or cancerous host cells.
Natural Killer
T lymphocytes originate in the red bone marrow, then finish maturation in the:
Thymus
List features of the tonsils
Lymphatic nodules, an incomplete fibrous capsule, tonsillar crypts.
A mast cell is very similar to a (n) _____, that secretes histamine, heparin, and other chemicals involved in inflammation.
basophil
Define edema
abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues
List some cells that are classified as lymphocytes.
T cells, B cells, NK cells.
The characteristic of immunity termed ____ describes how, when reedposed to the same pathogen, the body reacts so quickly that there is no noticeable illness.
Memory
The proteins found in blood that are involved in nonspecific defense against pathogens are called:
Complement
Name the cells that release inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes and heparin.
Mast cells, basophils
____ T cells perform a central coordinating role in both humoral and cellular immunity.
Helper
Name the cell that produces and secretes antibodies.
Plasma cells
Hematopoiesis occurs in the _____ bone marrow.
red
Where, exactly, is lymph found?
In lymphatic vessels
A ______ is a granulocyte that functions to nonspecifically destroy bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracellular digestion, and secretion of bactericidal chemicals.
neutrophil
Which cell is very similar to basophils in that they both secrete histamine, heparin, and other chemicals involved in inflammation?
Mast cell
A (n) ______ is an agranulocye specialized to migrate into the tissues and transform into a macrophage.
monocyte
The lymphatic system's functions are:
Immunity, absorption of lipids, fluid recovery
In _____ ______ immunity, body acquires antibodies from another person or an animal, via an injection, that has developed its own immunity to the pathogen.
artificial passive
Name the term for any large molecule capable of triggering an immune response.
antigen
Name the component of the lymphatic system that consists of unencapsulated aggregates of lymphocytes in the connective tissues and mucous membranes of various organs.
Lymphatic tissues
Identify the cytolytic protein secreted by NK cells.
Perferin
Humoral immunity is mediated by antibodies secreted by _____ cells.
B
_____ refers to the inability to produce a normal immune response, resulting from a lack of immune cells or other immune mediators such as complement.
Immunodeficiency
The _____ are patches of lymphatic tissue located at the entrance to the pharynx, where they guard against ingested and inhaled pathogens.
Tonsils
The characteristic called _____ describes how immunity is directed against a particular pathogen, and that immunity to one pathogen usually does not confer immunity to others.
Specificity
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes:
aids
The specialized lymphatic capillaries located in the villi of the small intestines are the ____.
lacteals
When the body makes its own antibodies of T cells against a pathogen, it is exhibiting ______ immunity.
active
A particular T cell will only become activated if ____ and _____.
Costimulated by other surface molecules, it binds to foreign antigen presented on an MHC protein.
When the body acquires antibodies from another person or an animal that has developed its own immunity to the pathogen, this type of immunity is classified as_____ imunity.
Passive
______ lymphocytes' originate in the red bone marrow, then finish maturation in the thymus.
T
A patient who is immunodeficient would have:
An underactive immune system
._____ is an abnormal elevation in body temperature NOT due to failed body thermoregulation.
Fever
Cellular immunity is mediated mainly by ______ cells, while humoral immunity is mediated mainly by ____ cells.
T, B
In _____ ______ immunity, the body makes its own antibodies or T cells against a pathogen.
natural active
When reexposed to the same pathogen, the body reacts so quickly that there is no noticeable illness. This characteristic of immunity is described as:
Memory
describe lymphatic capillaries
Closed-ended vessels consisting of loosely overlapping endothelial cells.
Follow the flow of lymphatic fluid in the correct order beginning with the blood capillaries.
Blood capillaries, interstitial spaces, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, internal jugular and subclavian vein junctions.
_____ T cells function to attack and destroy target cells by secreting perferins and granzymes.
Cytotoxic
Name the duct that drains lymph from the body below the diaphragm, the left upper limb and the left side of the head neck and thorax.
Thoracic
Name the granulocyte that functions to destroy bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracellular digestion, and secretion of bactericidal chemicals.
Neutrophil
Name the chemical secreted by basophils and mast cells that stimulates vasodilation.
histamine
The _____ is the nervous system region that regulates and maintains body temperature.
Hypothalamus
The type of immunity that is mediated by B cells and the antibodies they secrete is called ____.
Humoral
Describe a Clonal population of T cells:
React to the same antigen, are identical, are self-tolerant.
Identify the class of T cell that plays an integral role in both humoral and cell mediated immunity.
Helper T cell.
Name the cell that is found in the epidermis, mucous membranes, and lymphoid tissues that initiates immune responses by avtivating lymphocytes and secreting cytokines.
dendritic cell
Abnormal accumulation of non-inflammatory tissue fluid resulting in swelling of the tissue is known as _____.
edema
Distinct connective tissue capsules are found surrounding the lymphatic _____.
organs
List primary lymphoid organs.
Thymus, red bone marrow.
Name the type of molecule that is too small to be antigenic by itself, but can induce an immune response when bound to a larger molecule.
Hapten
____ refers to the inability to producea normal immune response, resulting from a lack of immune cells or other immune mediators such as complement.
Immunodeficiency
A cell that phagocytizes an antigen and displays fragment of it on its surface is a(n):
antigen presenting cell (APC)
Name the cells in the thymus that form the blood-thymus barrier and secrete signaling molecule contributing to T cell development: ______ cells.
reticular
Antibodies function to render antigens harmless by:
Neutralization, complement fixation, agglutination, precipitation.
List the characteristics of a secondary immune response.
IgG formed first, Antibodies first appear appear within hours, peaking day 3, occurs after second and subsequent exposure to antigen.
Name the organ where T-cells mature.
Thymus
Name the cells that produce the stroma of lymphatic organs.
reticular cells
Leukocytes adhere to the vessel wall and then crawl through the gaps between the endothelial cells. These two processes are termed _____ and _____, repectively.
Margination, diapedesis
WHich of the following factors cause or contribute to the flow of lymph.
valves, the skeletal musclce pump, the respiratory pump.
the type of defense that guards against a broad range of pathogens is _____ resistance.
nonspecific
The _____ line of defense is the immune system, which not only defeats a pathogen but leaves the body with a memory of it, enabling us to defeat it so quickly in future encounters that the pathogen causes no illnes.
third
WHich cells induce cytolysis by secreting perforin?
Cytotoxic T cells, NK cells.
B cells or T cells that are mature and are capable of recognizing antigens presented by APCs are described as _____.
Immunocompeten
Monocyes that migrate to the tissue and function as phagocytes are called:
macrophages
_____ T cells attack and destroy infected body cells, cancerous cells, and the cells of transplanted tissues by secreting perforins and granzymes.
Cytotoxic
____ T cells are descended from the cytotoxic T cells and are responsible for memory in cellular immunity.
Memory
describe allergens
Are environmental antigens, occur in mold, dust, and pollen, induce allergies
Name the antimicrobial protein that interferes with viral replication in host cells.
Interfereoon
A mast cell is very similar to a(n) ____, that secretes histamine, heparin, and other chemicals involved in inflammation.
Basophil
List possible causes for lack of self tolerance.
Cross reactivity between similar antigens, alteration of self antigens, abnormal exposure to self antigens.
Name the phenomenon that refers to the immunity provided by lymphocyes, especially T cells and NK cells which are continually looking for infected or diseased host cells.
Immune surveillance
Mature T-cells are capable of recognizing antigens presented by APCs. This characteristic is termed ____.
Immunocompetence
Cells derived from blood monocytes that function as phagocytes and antigens-presenting cells are called____.
macrophages
Name the term for any large molecule capable of triggering an immune response
antigen
A _____ is too small to be antigenic by itself, but can induce an immune response when bound to a larger molecule.
hapten
The region of the antigen which stimulates an immune response is the ___>
epitope
List the blood cells that secrete histamine, heparin, leukotrienes and kinins thus inducing the inflammatory response.
mast cells, basophils
_____ proteins occur only on APCs and may trigger a helper T cell response if displaying a foreign antigen.
MCH-II
Name the cell that functions by phagocytizing antigen antibody complexes, allergens, and inflammatory chemicals and secretes histaminase and other molecules that combat parasitic infections.
eosinophil
Mucosal associated lymphatic tissues (MALT) are:
Aggregates of lymphatic tissue scattered throughout the lamina propria of mucous membranes.
A population of identical cells that are mitotically descended from the same parent cell is called a _____>
clones
Any cell belonging to the human body, as oppposed to foreign cells introduced to it by such causes as infections and tissue transplants, is called a ____ cell.s
host
Name the class of T cells that are descended from the cytotoxic T cells and are resposible for subsequent immune responses to the same antigen.
memory T cell
the process called ____ ____ results in a formation of a clone of identical T cells programmed against the same epitope that stimulated the process.
clonal selection
During the inflammatory response, leukocytes traveling through the blood adhere to the blood vessel walls. Name this process.
margination
_____ proteins occur on all nucleated somatic cells and may trigger a cytotoxic T cell response if displaying a viral protein.
MHC-I
List some characteristics of lysozyme.
an enzyme, capable of destroying bacteria, found in saliva, tears, and other body fluids.
The fixed macrophage in the central nervous system is the:
microglia
The release of cytoplasmic granules and inflammartory mediators by basophil and mast cells is called.
degranulation
Some mature T-cells have not been activated by an antigen. this characteristic is described as ______.
Naivety
Diseases called _____ diseases result from failures of self tolerance.
Autoimmune
Name the tissue response to injury or trauma that serves to ward off a pathogen and promote tissue repai.
inflammation
The cortex of the lymph node contains:
germinal centers
____ _____ is the organic acid that may be excreted in sweat. it inhibits microbial growth.
lactic acid
Antibodies function to render antigens harmless by:
Agglutination, complement fixation, precipitation, neurtralization.
Name some beneficial efffects of fever.
Inhibition of bacterial and viral replication, elevated interferon activity, elevated metabolic rate.
Aspirin, acetaminophen or ibuprofen reduce the symthesis of prostaglandins and are generally called.
anitpyretics
_____ is a biogenic amine released by basophils, mast cells and some neurons which induces vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, and bronchoconstriction.
histamine.
List tissues which lack lymphatic vessels.
Bone marrow, cartilage, cornea, central nervous system.
Which byproduct of fermentation is excreted in the sweat where it inhibits microbial growth?
Lactic acid
Name the specific disorder, not the classification of the disorder, that relustlts in lack of both cellular and humoral immunity.
SCID
___ is an enzyme found in tears, milk, saliva, mucus, and other body fluids that destroys bacteria by digesting their cell walls.
Lysozyme
Name the organ that is the site of T-cell maturation.
Thymus
Cytotoxic T cells attack and destroy target cells by secreting.
perfoins
The spleen and lymph nodes are classified as _____ lymphatic organs.
secondary
Name the procedure for removing the spleen
splenectomy
a particular T cell will only become activated if ___ and ____.
It binds to foreign antigen presented on an MCH protein, costimulated by other surface molecule.
Name the external barrier that is coated with antimicrobial chemicals such as lactic acid, dermicidin, and defensins.
skin
lymphatic vessels are anatomically very similar to:
veins
The largest type of lymphatic vessel, which deposits lymph into the subclavian veins, is called a ___ ___.
collecting ducts
Reticular cells in the thymus secrete several signaling molecules. name four of them.
Interferon, thymosin, thymopoietin, interleukins
The component of the connective tissue of skin and mucous membranes, which porduces a viscous gel inhibiting the migration of microbes, is called.
hyaluronic acid.
The function of complement is to induce pathogen destruction by several mechanisms. list four of these.
cytolysis, inflammation, immune clearance, phagocytosis of pathogens.
complement proteins are synthesized mainly by the:
liver
B cells complete maturation in the:
REd bone marrow
___ lymphatic vessels carry lymph into the lymph node.
afferent
name three inflammartory mediators released by basophils and mast cells.
Leuikotriene, histamine, heparin
an elevated neutrophil count is called.
neutrophilia.
Antibodies function to render antigens harmless by:
Agglutination, neutralization, complement fixation, precipitation.
Name the class of T cell that inhibits multipliication and cytokine secretion by other T cells and thus limits immune responses.
regulatory T cell
Name the process whereby several hundred DNA segments are shuffled and combiined in various ways to produce antibody genes unique to each clone of B cells.
somatic recombination
The component of the connective tissue of skin and mucous membranes, which produces a viscous gel inhibiting the migration of microbes, is called _____ ______.
Hyaluronic acid
Anaphylaxis is an acute and severe type _____ hypersensitivity reaction.
I
Anaphylactiv shock is characterized by:
Circulatory shock, bronchoconstriction, systemic vasodilation, dyspnea.
List the events of B cell recognition and attack in the correct order:
Immunocompetent B cells bind to antigen, B cell internalizes/displays antigens on MHC-II to TH cell, TH cells secrete interleukins which activate the B cell, B cell undergoes clonal selection, Differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and memory cells, plasma cells produce and secrete antibodies.
The respiratory burst by Neutrophils leads to the production of highly toxic ___ _____ and ____.
Superoxide anion, hyddrogen peroxide, hypochlorite.
Molecules that function to render antigens harmless by: neutralization, complement fixation, agglutination and precipitation are called ____.
antibodies
Name the group of cytokines that function as signaling molecules affecting the growth and differentiation of various white blood cells and other lymphatic cells.
Interleukin
The alternative, classical, and lectin pathways are the three pathways to activate _____.
complement.
Define hypersensitivity:
An excessive and harmful reaction to antigens.
Some bacteria produce this enzyme, which allows them to more readily spread throughout the connective tissues:
Hyaluronidase
The great diversity in the specificity of antibody molecule is produced through:
Somatic hypermutation, somatic recombination.
PLatelets and endothelial cells secrete _____ which stimulates the synthesis of collagen and multiplication of fibroblasts.
Platelet derived growth factor
The term ____ _____ refers to the enzymatic reaction that leads to the rapid release of toxic reactive oxygen species and hypochlorite from phagocytic cells.
Respiratory burst.
WHich are possible routes by which HIV can be contracted?
Semen, breast milk, blood, vaginal secretions.
_____ are protein-degrading enzymes secreted by NK cells and enter infected cells through the pores made by perforins.
Granzymes
The cisterna chyli, which denotes the beginning of the thoracic trunk, is formed by the convergence of which lymphatic trunks?
lumbar, intestinal
Name the secretion of platelets and endothelial cells that stimulates the synthesis of collagen and multiplication of fibroblasts.
Platelet derived growth factor
To confirm exposure to an antigen, a ____ can be measured.
antibody titer
Any surface glycolipid on bacteria or viruses that stimulate fever are examples of _____ pyrogens.
exogenous
Hyperemia results from:
Vasodilaton
An antibody _____ is a measure of the level of antibody present in the blood plasma.
titer
Type I hypersensitivity is classifiend as ______. while type II is classified as ____.
acute; antibody dependent cytotoxicity
Hyperemia is the basis for what cardinal inflammatory signs?
heat, redness