A cell that phagocytizes an antigen and displays fragments of it on its surface is a (n):
Antigen presenting cell (APC)
Name the lymphocyte that mediates humoral immune responses, differentiating into an antibody-producing plasma cell.
List the features of the skin that offer immunoprotection.
Presence of defensins, presence of lactic acid, continuous barrier to the external environment.
Name the characteristic of immunity describing how it is directed against a particular pathogen.
A (n) ______ is a granulocyte, with a multilobed nucleau, that serves especially to destroy bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracellular digestion, and secretion of bactericidal chemicals.
The _____ line of defense consists of several nonspecific defense mechanisms against pathogens that break through the skin or mucous membranes.
Name the plasma proteins that make powerful contributions to both nonspecific resistence and specific immunity.
The _____ line of defense consists of external barriers, notably the skin and mucous membranes, which are impenetrable to most of the pathogens that daily assault us.
Name the granulocyte with coarse cytoplasmic granules that produces heparin, histamine, and other chemicals involved in inflammation.
Abnormal accumulation of non-inflammatory tissue fluid resulting iin swelling of the tissue is known as ____.
What are the main functions of the lymphatic system?
Absorption of lipids, immunity, fluid recovery from tissues
______ T cells attack and destroy infected body cells, cancerous cells, and the cells of transplanted tissues by secreting perforins and granzymes.
Name the body system that functions to maintain fluid balance in the tissue, absorbs lipids, and protects the body against pathogens.
The thymus is considered part of several body systems. Name these.
Immune system, endocrine system, lymphatic system.
True or false: Both lymphatic tissues and lymphatic organs have distinct connective tissue capsules surrounding them.
The ____ ____ cell is a lymphatic cell that functions to non-specifically target bacteria, transplanted tissue cells, and virally infected or cancerous host cells.
A mast cell is very similar to a (n) _____, that secretes histamine, heparin, and other chemicals involved in inflammation.
The characteristic of immunity termed ____ describes how, when reedposed to the same pathogen, the body reacts so quickly that there is no noticeable illness.
The proteins found in blood that are involved in nonspecific defense against pathogens are called:
Name the cells that release inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes and heparin.
Mast cells, basophils
A ______ is a granulocyte that functions to nonspecifically destroy bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracellular digestion, and secretion of bactericidal chemicals.
Which cell is very similar to basophils in that they both secrete histamine, heparin, and other chemicals involved in inflammation?
A (n) ______ is an agranulocye specialized to migrate into the tissues and transform into a macrophage.
In _____ ______ immunity, body acquires antibodies from another person or an animal, via an injection, that has developed its own immunity to the pathogen.
Name the component of the lymphatic system that consists of unencapsulated aggregates of lymphocytes in the connective tissues and mucous membranes of various organs.
_____ refers to the inability to produce a normal immune response, resulting from a lack of immune cells or other immune mediators such as complement.
The _____ are patches of lymphatic tissue located at the entrance to the pharynx, where they guard against ingested and inhaled pathogens.
The characteristic called _____ describes how immunity is directed against a particular pathogen, and that immunity to one pathogen usually does not confer immunity to others.
The specialized lymphatic capillaries located in the villi of the small intestines are the ____.
When the body makes its own antibodies of T cells against a pathogen, it is exhibiting ______ immunity.
A particular T cell will only become activated if ____ and _____.
Costimulated by other surface molecules, it binds to foreign antigen presented on an MHC protein.
When the body acquires antibodies from another person or an animal that has developed its own immunity to the pathogen, this type of immunity is classified as_____ imunity.
Cellular immunity is mediated mainly by ______ cells, while humoral immunity is mediated mainly by ____ cells.
In _____ ______ immunity, the body makes its own antibodies or T cells against a pathogen.
When reexposed to the same pathogen, the body reacts so quickly that there is no noticeable illness. This characteristic of immunity is described as:
describe lymphatic capillaries
Closed-ended vessels consisting of loosely overlapping endothelial cells.
Follow the flow of lymphatic fluid in the correct order beginning with the blood capillaries.
Blood capillaries, interstitial spaces, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, internal jugular and subclavian vein junctions.
_____ T cells function to attack and destroy target cells by secreting perferins and granzymes.
Name the duct that drains lymph from the body below the diaphragm, the left upper limb and the left side of the head neck and thorax.
Name the granulocyte that functions to destroy bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracellular digestion, and secretion of bactericidal chemicals.
The type of immunity that is mediated by B cells and the antibodies they secrete is called ____.
Describe a Clonal population of T cells:
React to the same antigen, are identical, are self-tolerant.
Identify the class of T cell that plays an integral role in both humoral and cell mediated immunity.
Helper T cell.
Name the cell that is found in the epidermis, mucous membranes, and lymphoid tissues that initiates immune responses by avtivating lymphocytes and secreting cytokines.
Abnormal accumulation of non-inflammatory tissue fluid resulting in swelling of the tissue is known as _____.
Name the type of molecule that is too small to be antigenic by itself, but can induce an immune response when bound to a larger molecule.
____ refers to the inability to producea normal immune response, resulting from a lack of immune cells or other immune mediators such as complement.
A cell that phagocytizes an antigen and displays fragment of it on its surface is a(n):
antigen presenting cell (APC)
Name the cells in the thymus that form the blood-thymus barrier and secrete signaling molecule contributing to T cell development: ______ cells.
Antibodies function to render antigens harmless by:
Neutralization, complement fixation, agglutination, precipitation.
List the characteristics of a secondary immune response.
IgG formed first, Antibodies first appear appear within hours, peaking day 3, occurs after second and subsequent exposure to antigen.
Leukocytes adhere to the vessel wall and then crawl through the gaps between the endothelial cells. These two processes are termed _____ and _____, repectively.
WHich of the following factors cause or contribute to the flow of lymph.
valves, the skeletal musclce pump, the respiratory pump.
The _____ line of defense is the immune system, which not only defeats a pathogen but leaves the body with a memory of it, enabling us to defeat it so quickly in future encounters that the pathogen causes no illnes.
B cells or T cells that are mature and are capable of recognizing antigens presented by APCs are described as _____.
_____ T cells attack and destroy infected body cells, cancerous cells, and the cells of transplanted tissues by secreting perforins and granzymes.
____ T cells are descended from the cytotoxic T cells and are responsible for memory in cellular immunity.
A mast cell is very similar to a(n) ____, that secretes histamine, heparin, and other chemicals involved in inflammation.
List possible causes for lack of self tolerance.
Cross reactivity between similar antigens, alteration of self antigens, abnormal exposure to self antigens.
Name the phenomenon that refers to the immunity provided by lymphocyes, especially T cells and NK cells which are continually looking for infected or diseased host cells.
Mature T-cells are capable of recognizing antigens presented by APCs. This characteristic is termed ____.
Cells derived from blood monocytes that function as phagocytes and antigens-presenting cells are called____.
A _____ is too small to be antigenic by itself, but can induce an immune response when bound to a larger molecule.
List the blood cells that secrete histamine, heparin, leukotrienes and kinins thus inducing the inflammatory response.
mast cells, basophils
_____ proteins occur only on APCs and may trigger a helper T cell response if displaying a foreign antigen.
Name the cell that functions by phagocytizing antigen antibody complexes, allergens, and inflammatory chemicals and secretes histaminase and other molecules that combat parasitic infections.
Mucosal associated lymphatic tissues (MALT) are:
Aggregates of lymphatic tissue scattered throughout the lamina propria of mucous membranes.
A population of identical cells that are mitotically descended from the same parent cell is called a _____>
Any cell belonging to the human body, as oppposed to foreign cells introduced to it by such causes as infections and tissue transplants, is called a ____ cell.s
Name the class of T cells that are descended from the cytotoxic T cells and are resposible for subsequent immune responses to the same antigen.
memory T cell
the process called ____ ____ results in a formation of a clone of identical T cells programmed against the same epitope that stimulated the process.
During the inflammatory response, leukocytes traveling through the blood adhere to the blood vessel walls. Name this process.
_____ proteins occur on all nucleated somatic cells and may trigger a cytotoxic T cell response if displaying a viral protein.
List some characteristics of lysozyme.
an enzyme, capable of destroying bacteria, found in saliva, tears, and other body fluids.
The release of cytoplasmic granules and inflammartory mediators by basophil and mast cells is called.
Some mature T-cells have not been activated by an antigen. this characteristic is described as ______.
Name the tissue response to injury or trauma that serves to ward off a pathogen and promote tissue repai.
____ _____ is the organic acid that may be excreted in sweat. it inhibits microbial growth.
Antibodies function to render antigens harmless by:
Agglutination, complement fixation, precipitation, neurtralization.
Name some beneficial efffects of fever.
Inhibition of bacterial and viral replication, elevated interferon activity, elevated metabolic rate.
Aspirin, acetaminophen or ibuprofen reduce the symthesis of prostaglandins and are generally called.
_____ is a biogenic amine released by basophils, mast cells and some neurons which induces vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, and bronchoconstriction.
Which byproduct of fermentation is excreted in the sweat where it inhibits microbial growth?
Name the specific disorder, not the classification of the disorder, that relustlts in lack of both cellular and humoral immunity.
___ is an enzyme found in tears, milk, saliva, mucus, and other body fluids that destroys bacteria by digesting their cell walls.
a particular T cell will only become activated if ___ and ____.
It binds to foreign antigen presented on an MCH protein, costimulated by other surface molecule.
Name the external barrier that is coated with antimicrobial chemicals such as lactic acid, dermicidin, and defensins.
The largest type of lymphatic vessel, which deposits lymph into the subclavian veins, is called a ___ ___.
Reticular cells in the thymus secrete several signaling molecules. name four of them.
Interferon, thymosin, thymopoietin, interleukins
The component of the connective tissue of skin and mucous membranes, which porduces a viscous gel inhibiting the migration of microbes, is called.
The function of complement is to induce pathogen destruction by several mechanisms. list four of these.
cytolysis, inflammation, immune clearance, phagocytosis of pathogens.
name three inflammartory mediators released by basophils and mast cells.
Leuikotriene, histamine, heparin
Antibodies function to render antigens harmless by:
Agglutination, neutralization, complement fixation, precipitation.
Name the class of T cell that inhibits multipliication and cytokine secretion by other T cells and thus limits immune responses.
regulatory T cell
Name the process whereby several hundred DNA segments are shuffled and combiined in various ways to produce antibody genes unique to each clone of B cells.
The component of the connective tissue of skin and mucous membranes, which produces a viscous gel inhibiting the migration of microbes, is called _____ ______.
Anaphylactiv shock is characterized by:
Circulatory shock, bronchoconstriction, systemic vasodilation, dyspnea.
List the events of B cell recognition and attack in the correct order:
Immunocompetent B cells bind to antigen, B cell internalizes/displays antigens on MHC-II to TH cell, TH cells secrete interleukins which activate the B cell, B cell undergoes clonal selection, Differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and memory cells, plasma cells produce and secrete antibodies.
The respiratory burst by Neutrophils leads to the production of highly toxic ___ _____ and ____.
Superoxide anion, hyddrogen peroxide, hypochlorite.
Molecules that function to render antigens harmless by: neutralization, complement fixation, agglutination and precipitation are called ____.
Name the group of cytokines that function as signaling molecules affecting the growth and differentiation of various white blood cells and other lymphatic cells.
The alternative, classical, and lectin pathways are the three pathways to activate _____.
Some bacteria produce this enzyme, which allows them to more readily spread throughout the connective tissues:
The great diversity in the specificity of antibody molecule is produced through:
Somatic hypermutation, somatic recombination.
PLatelets and endothelial cells secrete _____ which stimulates the synthesis of collagen and multiplication of fibroblasts.
Platelet derived growth factor
The term ____ _____ refers to the enzymatic reaction that leads to the rapid release of toxic reactive oxygen species and hypochlorite from phagocytic cells.
WHich are possible routes by which HIV can be contracted?
Semen, breast milk, blood, vaginal secretions.
_____ are protein-degrading enzymes secreted by NK cells and enter infected cells through the pores made by perforins.
The cisterna chyli, which denotes the beginning of the thoracic trunk, is formed by the convergence of which lymphatic trunks?
Name the secretion of platelets and endothelial cells that stimulates the synthesis of collagen and multiplication of fibroblasts.
Platelet derived growth factor
Any surface glycolipid on bacteria or viruses that stimulate fever are examples of _____ pyrogens.
Type I hypersensitivity is classifiend as ______. while type II is classified as ____.
acute; antibody dependent cytotoxicity