Terms From PSY 102
Terms in this set (148)
activity theory of aging
The highest levels happiness in late adulthood are achieved by maintaining previous levels of activity.
active theory of speech perception
Theory of speech perception that states that a listener is actively uses contextual information and cues when processing and comprehending language.
Specific step-by-step procedures that are followed in order to solve a problem.
A deviation from what is common or normal.
All the chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes.
Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale
A series of tests developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in the early 20th century that were designed to test memory, attention, and the ability to understand similarities and differences.
A method of problem solving that is characterized by innovative thought.
A type of bias in which one falls into the trap of only seeing what he or she expects to see, because he or she is looking for something in particular.
The conscious thinking, learning, and remembering.
When an individual changes his or her cognitive schemas to include information that does not fit into the existing schemas.
The mental state of imbalance when new pieces of information do not align with previous information.
An idea that represents a category of objects, people, events, or activities that share a common set of characteristics.
An assumption that there is only one solution to a problem and that all thinking will lead to the correct answer.
The tendency to use the characteristics of one's own culture are used to judge another.
IQs that stray from the average score.
An assumption that a problem should be approached from multiple different perspectives, exploring any and all possible solution options without judgment.
The ability to accurately perceive, manage, and regulate one's emotions.
Concepts are formed based on characteristics that have been previously assigned to distinct categories.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
A condition that results in a range of mental and physical birth defects in children born to mothers that consumed alcohol during pregnancy.
A concept that is clearly and narrowly defined by strict rules.
A measurement that represents an individual's general intelligence.
General Intelligence Theory
Concept that intelligence can be measured by relating a variety of different cognitive abilities.
A type of reasoning or decision-making that is based on common sense.
Problems that do not have clear or expected solutions.
The sudden discovery of an answer to a problem.
The ability acquire knowledge, and effectively learn from the surrounding environment.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
The measurement used to express the apparent relative intelligence of a person.
Understanding of knowledge, information, or a situation without needing to use reason.
The age at which an individual performs intellectually.
The phenomenon of experiencing the image of a real object when the object is not present.
The theory that suggests there are many types of intelligence and cognitive abilities, rather than one dominant general intelligence.
A concept that is formed through experiences and perceptions rather than by a strict definition.
a distribution of data where most points occur at the median with an equal representation of declining data points of either side of the curve.
The act of finding solutions to problems.
An example of something that closely resembles the characteristics of a concept.
The formation of concepts based on a mental ideal of an event or object.
The science and technique of mental measurements.
The calculation of the intelligence quotient (IQ).
Research by Mary Ainsworth that was designed to measure the attachment style of infants.
trial and error
A method of problem solving that involves trying a new possible solution after finding a previous method to be unsuccessful.
The theory that suggests there are three cognitive abilities make up an individual's intelligence: analytic, creative, and personal.
Problems that are easily managed and have solutions with clear expectations.
William G. Perry, Jr.
Believed that cognitive development moves from a dualistic (right or wrong) view of the world toward a relativistic view.
An organism's observable characteristics.
The concept that development of a skill takes place in one knowledge domain independently from other domains of knowledge.
Swiss psychologist who developed a four-stage theory of cognitive development in children.
Type capacity to imagine hypothetical situations and compare them to the realities of the real world.
The ability to use words, symbols, and images.
The nine weeks following conception through birth, during which the bodily systems grow and mature.
A chromosome disorder caused by extra genetic material from chromosome 21.
Identification with, and manifestation of the societally determined definitions of, femininity, masculinity, androgyny, or any range in between.
The structure of DNA that resembles a twisted ladder and contains genetic code.
dialectical model of cognitive development
Model that argues that context is the key variable that influences changes in cognitive development
The scientific study of heredity and how genes transmit traits and characteristics.
secure attachment pattern
Attachment pattern marked by a willingness to explore, and a certainty that the caretaker will meet their needs, protect them, and show them love.
The Piagetian principle that an object will retain some of its properties after undergoing a physical change.
social learning theory
Theory that argues that observational learning plays in the development of gender identity.
Research method that studies a group of people over many years.
Second level of Kohlberg's moral development model; moral reasoning is guided by interpersonal expectations and conformity.
Law of Dominance
Mendelian law of genetics that states that if there is a dominant gene present, it will always be expressed.
The degree of variability of a trait due to genetic differences in a given population.
The characteristics that are typically associated with a particular gender.
The first two weeks following conception when the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus.
A rare genetic disorder that causes serious medical problems such as intellectual disability.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Carrier of genetic information; the material from which chromosomes are built.
The direct results and experiences of growth and aging.
Disorders that result from abnormalities in the DNA.
A person whose biological sex traits and gender identity are incongruent.
concrete operations stage
Piagetian stage that occurs from approximately age 7 to 12, where an individual develops the ability to achieve logical thought and conversation.
Process where a learner is provided with more assistance at the beginning of the learning process and is gradually withdrawn as the learner improves.
The primary male reproductive hormone.
The period during pregnancy from the moment the egg is fertilized until birth.
biological theory of sex role acquisition
Sex roles are acquired as a result of hormonal differences in the womb.
Research design that combines both the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods; researchers follow many different groups over a specified length of time.
An adolescent's false belief that they are immune from harm, risk or danger.
Section of DNA on a chromosome that determines hereditary traits.
Law of Segregation
Mendelian law of genetics that states that alleles from genes are randomly separated into sex cells; one of those alleles from each parent will be randomly received by the child.
Inarticulate sounds made by infants that are attempting to mimic speech.
Intonation patterns found in spoken language.
Also known as the Moro reflex, this reflex occurs when a baby is startled by a loud noise or sudden movement. The baby will extend out its arms and legs and then pull the arms and legs back in.
The desire to contribute to future generations.
secondary sex characteristics
The bodily structures that are present from birth and are directly related to reproduction.
The study of the influence of genetic factors on personality development over the human life span.
Method of research that explores the characteristics of a population without attempting to discover when or how those things began.
Law of Independent Assortment
Mendelian law of genetics that states that the genes for different traits are divided into sex cells randomly and independently of the division of other genes.
Theory that suggests speech is identified by constantly refining word choices based on context and perceived sounds.
An adolescent's belief that they are unique and destined for fame and fortune while others are not.
Suggests that an individual innately understands a speaker's intention because of facial expressions, intonation, and word choice.
People who do not identify as having a gender; also known as gender-neutral.
Research method that looks for a relationship between two or more variables.
The process of trying to fit new information into existing categories.
A trait that is visible in the absence of a dominant trait.
adolescent growth spurt
The period of rapid growth during adolescence.
In psychology, a strong and enduring emotional tie between two people.
Socially constructed definitions of gender that are culturally specific.
An individual's inability to reverse a sequence of events. For example, a child may be able to add 2 + 5, but may not understand that 5 + 2 is the same equation.
Third level of Kohlberg's moral development model; moral reasoning is guided by principles that protect the rights of all members of society.
The debate in psychology and biology centered on the roles that nature and nurture play in determining traits.
People who self-identify as all genders, and therefore do not wish to be categorized as male or female.
Piagetian stage, from ages 2 to 7, highlighted by the development of language and symbolic thought.
The primary female reproductive hormone.
Commonly referred to as 'baby talk,' this speech is characterized by short, simple sentences.
Disease that causes progressive decrease in bone density.
The concept that improving a skill in one area will also result in improvements in other areas.
Noted female psychologist that focused on ethical behavior in relationships and in communities.
Structures that contain numerous genes that are located in the nucleus of the cells.
The natural and gradual decrease in testosterone production in men, starting at approximately age 30.
Austrian monk and botanist who conducted experiments related to breeding different varieties of the garden pea, leading to the modern understanding of genetics.Austrian monk and botanist who conducted experiments related to breeding different varieties of the garden pea, leading to the modern understanding of genetics.
avoidant insecure attachment pattern
Attachment pattern displayed by children who have an unhealthy attachment to their caretaker.
First level of Kohlberg's moral development model; moral reasoning is guided by punishments and rewards.
A shared common aspect in a group of people with regard to a particular area of study.
Model of cognitive development that regards learners as active seekers and processors of information; compares the human mind to a computer.
A condition caused by missing, extra, or irregular portions of DNA.
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
The difference between what a child can accomplish alone versus when they receive the help of a teacher or mentor.
The genetic makeup of an organism.
An individual's tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation, ignoring all other relevant aspects.
An individual's inability to consider events or situations from another person's point of view.
Encouragement and influence placed on an individual to think or act like his or her peers.
formal operations stage
Beginning in adolescence, the Piagetian stage where an individual starts to be able to think abstractly.
Cessation of female menstruation and the childbearing years of life.
Reflex where placing a finger on an infant's palm will cause it to grip the finger.
The first menstrual cycle in women, signaling the capability to bear children.
An exercise that demonstrates the ability of an individual to understand the Piagetian principles of conservation.
resistant insecure attachment pattern
Attachment pattern displayed defined by clingy behavior.
Developmental psychologist that developed a theory that focused on emotional attachment between people.
passive theory of speech perception
Perception of speech occurs at a sensory level where it is automatically encoded and comprehended.
Russian psychologist and contemporary of Piaget's who focused on how the environment affects a child's cognitive development.
Piagetian stage, from birth to age 2, where an infant's motor abilities and senses develop.
Reflex in which a baby will begin to make a sucking motion when a finger is placed around its mouth.
Stage in human development that is defined by hormonal, emotional, and physical changes.
The chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism.
Prominent Feminist Psychologist that studied gender schemas and gender differences perpetuated by culture.
The cell that is formed when an egg and a sperm unite.
Exhibiting a combination of both male and female characteristics.
The stage between late childhood and the beginning of adulthood.
This adjective means 'head to tail' and describes the way major motor milestones develop in infants.
The reflex responsible for the stepping motions a baby makes when the sole of its foot touches a hard surface.
Research design that examines data collected from a population, for the purpose of examining the prevalence of a behavior or condition.
Period following conception during which the central nervous system, major organs, and parts of the body begin to develop.
The reflex in infants that will cause the head to turn toward something placed against the cheek.
Area of psychology that studies how people change over the lifespan.
Soft sounds that have no meaning.
One number of the many possible alternate forms of a gene.
The process of learning a culture's expectations for being male or female.
An individual's emotional and psychological sense of their own gender.
The understanding that objects can exist even when they are not visible.
A trait that is expressed over others.
relativistic model of cognitive development
Model of cognitive development that argues that there are systems of knowledge that are incompatible because of the contexts in which they are discussed, e.g. science and religion.
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