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According to Merton's Anomie/Strain theory, which group is most likely to commit crime?

Initial contact, investigation, arrest, custody

Discretion by police officers occurs during the first four stages of the criminal justice process. In order, what are those stages?

top layer of the CJ cake

A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard.

young men

The greater the proportion of ____________ in the population, the higher the crime rate and the greater the number of persistent offenders.

simple assault

Which of the following crimes is not included on the list of Part I index crimes documented in the Uniform Crime Reports?

consensus, interactionist, and conflict perspectives

Our course definition of crime takes into account which of the following?

west and south

Which regions of the country usually have significantly higher rates of crime?

circuit court

Which of the following would not constitute a specialty court?

U.S. Special Jurisdiction Court

The federal governments' three tiered hierarchy of court jurisdiction includes all of the following except?

decide whether the defendant is guilty using a bench trial

When a jury trial is waived, the judge must

Drafting legislative language to be forwarded to congressional sponsors

Which of the following is not one of the judicial functions of a judge?

they are restricted to hearing minor or less serious civil and criminal cases

Courts of limited jurisdiction and named as such because:

rodney king

Police reform was prompted by which case

Legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea

Intoxication and age are examples of what


The Durham Rule is associated with the ________ defense

1/2 ; all

Approximately _____ of the states have three-strikes laws but nearly ____ of them require the third felony be a serious one

affecting the perception of the general public

Sentencing for the purpose of general deterrence has most to do with

Correctional agency and the judge

Who determines the actual length of incarceration in the indeterminate sentence?


The _____ Amendment contains the confrontation clause

They can be used to excuse jurors for no particular reason

Which of the following is true of peremptory challenges during jury selection?

There is no court supervision of these programs

Which of the following statements is false regarding diversion programs?

productive interaction with the community being served

Community oriented policing links police effectiveness to:

order maintenance

While there are many goals of patrol, most police experts agree that the majority of police patrol efforts are devoted to:

hiring of bilingual officers to patrol ethnic neighborhoods

Which of the following police operations best exemplifies community oriented policing?

issue arrest warrants

not one of the major purposes of police patrol?

crime fighting

not a focus of community policing

Reactive patrol is necessary

Which of the following is not a fundamental assumption of the broken windows model?

law enforcer

An officer approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, she checks everyone's ID and arrests all who are underage. This example best typifies which officer style?


As a result of the Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment, police departments ______ the use of mandatory arrest policies for domestic violence.

Mentally Competent

To stand trial, a criminal defendant must be considered to be?

19th century

When did the concept of incarcerating convicted offenders as a form of punishment become the norm for corrections?

silence and confinement

What was the key to discipline in the Auburn system?

desire to help and treat children

The juvenile justice system developed as a result of?

Rehabilitation services can be accessed while in the community

Which of the following is an advantage of diversion programs?

The probation contract is terminated and the original sentence is imposed

What happens when probation is revoked?

actually shorter than

For misdemeanors, probation usually extends for the entire period of a would-be jail sentence, whereas felonies are more likely to warrant probationary periods that are _________ the suspended prison sentence

The court

What entity initially sets down the conditions or rules of behavior that must be followed by the probationer?


Private prisons _____ the cost of incarceration

rehabilitation, Elimination of Three Strikes, increase use of probation

Some of the possible solutions for prison overcrowding

health problems for inmates, threats to safety, stressed inmates

Prison overcrowding can lead to these

Failure of community release programs, conviction rates, Mandatory sentencing laws

regarding future prison trends

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