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TExES EC-6: History
Terms in this set (51)
Battle that began in Concord & Lexington, Massachusetts due to disapproval by colonists of several taxes and other unpopular laws in 1775.
The Treaty of Paris negotiated between the United States and Great Britain, ended the revolutionary war and recognized American independence.
Declaration of Independence
1776- severed the political connections between the thirteen original American colonies and Great Britain. By declaring themselves an independent nation, the American colonists were able to forge an official alliance with the government of France and obtain French assistance in the war against Great Britain.
1823: "America for the Americans". President Monroe made clear to European countries that the U.S. was not going to permit the establishment of colonies in the western hemisphere.
Monroe banned European countries from attacking the new American Republics that were just becoming established in the early 19th century. U.S. would not become involved in European affairs.
Manifest Destiny was a phrase which invoked the idea of divine sanction for the territorial expansion of the United States.
1844-President James K. Polk declared that the U.S. would eventually become a world power and expand to its natural borders. Polk's expectations became reality as a result of the war between Mexico and the U.S. from 1846-1848.
American Civil War
1861-1865: war between North (Union states) and South (Confederate states) over slavery and succeeding.
Battle of Gettysburg
Battle in 1863, part of American Civil War. Most disastrous event of the war and perhaps in the history of the U.S.
More than 50,000 soldiers from the North and South lost their lives.
General Robert E. Lee
1865- the commander of the confederate army, surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant, the commander of the Union forces.
1862- Issued by Abraham Lincoln which granted freedom to slaves in the South.
1863- Speech delivered on the battlefield in November. President Lincoln eulogized the fallen Union soldiers.
Era after American Civil War from 1865-1877.
Physical restoration focused on the South, where most of the war was fought.
Congress required southern states to ratify the 14th amendment (gave citizenship to black people) of the constitution prior to being allowed back into the union.
By John Wilkes Booth. He was attending a play at Ford's theater
Very restrictive laws passed by southern legislatures during Reconstruction Era to control former slaves. Some black codes restricted free assembly, while others restricted the types of jobs that they could do. These laws were eliminated in 1867.
Legal and political rights of the people who live in a particular country.
In the U.S. constitution, the Bill of Rights guarantee civil rights to American citizens and residents.
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution that guarantee civil rights to American citizens and residents.
American Civil Rights Movement
Sought equality for African Americans.
1964- The Civil rights act passed. Prohibited segregation in all public facilities and discrimination in education and employment.
Plessey v. Ferguson
1896- this ruling legalized segregation, allowing "separate but equal facilities" for black and white students.
1947 1st African American major league baseball player
1948 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954 Supreme court ruling reversing the policy of segregation of races in public schools, declaring that seperate can never be equal and a year later ordered the integration of all public schools with all deliberate speed.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955- Rosa Parks, a well-known activist and respected citizen of Montgomery, Alabama, refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man (as Alabama's Jim crow laws required). She was arrested and sent to jail.
Montgomery Improvement Association
Rosa Park's defiance prompted the NAACP to form this new organization.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., was chosen to lead to the organization and to direct a boycott of the Montgomery bus company. The boycott began in December 1966 and ended about a year later when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled segregation on buses unconstitutional.
Martin Luther King Jr.
One of the most prominent figures of the Civil Rights Movement. Led the Montgomery Improvement Association.
Founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, The SCLC favored nonviolent forms of protest such as sit-ins, boycotts, and protest marches.
1968- Assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee
John F. Kennedy
Proposed new Civil Rights laws & programs during the Civil Rights Movement. He was assassinated in Dallas in 1963.
Mexican American Civil Rights Movement
1960's- Mexican Americans were engaged in the struggle for human rights.
1920- 19th amendment guaranteed women the right to vote
The civil rights movement provided the impetus for the women's movement of the 60's.
Temperance Movement- prohibition
Began in the 1830's. Sought to prohibit alcohol consumption in the United States.
1855- 13 states had enacted legislation to prohibit the use of alcohol.
1919- 18th Amendment, prohibited alcohol consumption at the national level
Spanish American War of 1898
War between Spain and the United States that made the U.S. a world power, establishing its influence in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean.
Cuba became an independent nation, and the U.S. gained control of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.
Eventually, the Philippines became an independent nation.
World War I
1914- The first global war. Began in Europe (Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand) and involved 2 alliances: the allies and the central powers.
WW I Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary empire, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
WW I Allies
England, France, Russia and Italy
Why U. S. Enters WW1
1917 German submarine attacks U.S. merchant ships trading with France & Germany. Sinking of RMS Lusitania, killing 129 Americans. Interception of Zimmerman Telegram, sent by the The Empire of Germany to Mexico, urging for a declaration of war against the US.
Treaty of Versailles
1919- "Treaty of Versailles" punished the Central Powers severely and forced them to pay for the war. (Later known as the War Guilt Clause)
President Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points
1918- address to Congress, President Woodrow Wilson proposed a 14-point program for world peace. These points were later taken as the basis for peace negotiations at the end of the war.
The Great Depression
A 10-year period of economic depression that was brought on by the Stock Market Crash of 1929. Resulted in the loss of capital and jobs for millions of people.
The Golden 1920s
Period of prosperity in the U.S. after following World War I.
Year the Stock Market Crashed
World War II
1939-1945: The deadliest, most wide-spread war in history. Formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies (Soviet Union, United States, United Kingdom, Republic of China (1912-49) the Axis (Germany, Japan, Italy).
The war started with the German invasion of Poland in 1939.
2 days later, France and England declared war against Germany.
Hitler conquered most of Europe in a relatively short time.
The U.S. supported the allies with supplies and weapons but did not send troops.
1941- U.S. joined the allies when Japan attacked its naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
1944- synonymous with June 6, 1944, the day the Allied powers crossed the English Channel and landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, beginning the liberation of Western Europe from Nazi control during World War II. Within three months, the northern part of France would be freed and the invasion force would be preparing to enter Germany, where they would meet up with Soviet forces moving in from the east.
U.S. was led by General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
1945- By the order of Pres. Harry Truman, the U.S. dropped 2 atomic bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki.
The death and destruction created by the bombs forced the Japanese Gov. to surrender in 1945, ending WW II
The Holocaust & Creation of Israel
During WW II, Hitler devised a master plan to exterminate the Jewish population.
Germany placed European Jews in concentration camps and systematically killed millions (genocide).
At the end of the war, the state of Israel was created in Palestine. At the same time, the Arab liberation army was created to fight the Jewish state.
This liberation movement has resulted in many wars between Israel and the Arabs.
1947- American foreign policy to stop Soviet imperialism during the Cold War. President Harry Truman issued a proclamation warning communist countries that the U.S. will help any nation in danger of falling under communist control.
As a result of this doctrine, the U.S. became involved in 2 major military conflicts: Korean war, and Vietnam war.
The Truman Doctrine became the foundation of American foreign policy, and led in 1949 to the formation of NATO, a full-fledged military alliance that is in effect to this day. Historians often use Truman's speech to date the start of the Cold War.
1945-1991- name given to the relationship that developed primarily between the USA and the USSR after World War II. The Cold War was to dominate international affairs for decades and many major crises occurred - the Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam, Hungary and the Berlin Wall. The growth in weapons of mass destruction was the most worrying issue.
Ended at the fall of USSR (Mikhail Gorbachev)
War on Terrorism
2001- began with attacks on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and Pennsylvania. Killed more than 3000 people. U.S. declared war and attacked the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
American forces succeeded in conquering the country but failed the to capture Saudi Arabian militant, Osama bin laden, the master mind of the attacks.
Built the capital of their empire, Cuzco, in the Andes mountains in what is now Peru. They carved the land for agriculture and built roads and cities.;
anti slavery activists who demanded the immediate end of slavery
Advice and Consent Clause
clause in the U.S. Constitution. This clause states that the President can exercise his/her power to enter into treaties with other countries and make appointments of judges and other officials only with the advice and consent of the Senate.
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
Once the Westward movement had begun, prominent among those blazing treacherous trails of the Wild West were the Buffalo Soldiers of the U.S. Army. These African-Americans were charged with and responsible for escorting settlers, cattle herds, and railroad crews.
Common Sense (Thomas Paine)
Published in 1776, Common Sense challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. Paine used plain language that spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
Civil Rights Movement 1947
Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play baseball on a major league team.
"Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka" case
NAACP sued. 1954 Supreme Court ruled segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
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