Terms in this set (622)

child prodigy
father Leopold - violinist and deputy Kappellmeister - wrote violin treatise
-toured extensively with his sister

-Mozart became interested in Schobert's music which simulated orchestra effects through rapid figuration and thick chordal textures - a technique he later imitated

-met J.C. Bach who had lasting influence
-Bach's features of Italian opera: songful themes, tasteful appoggiaturas, and triples all became permanent marks of Mozart's writing. Also the contrasting themes in concerto and sonata-form movements

Italy and Vienna
-Sammartini's influence emerges in Mozart's symphonies written between 1770 and 1773
-visit to Vienna acquainted him with current styles there, especially in the serenade, string quartet and symphony
Kochel - catalogues Mozart's works

-3rd concertmaster at Archbishop Colloredos court in Salzburg
-while he traveled seeking other positions - mother dies, falls in love with Alosyia Weber
-received invitation from Munich for Idomeneo - left his post in Salzburg
-Spent 10 years in Vienna freelnacing
-success of Abduction
-performed in concerts
-became chamber music composer of the emperor
Ex: Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail was successful

Mature years in Vienna
-music enriched by new influences from three of the century's greatest composers: J.S. Bach, Haydn and Handel
-Bach's influence felt in Mozart's contrapuntal works

Piano Music
-piano virtuoso
Sonata in F Major
-themes and combinations of heterogeneous styles
-Mozart's themes tend to be songlike
-phrases usually balanced between antecedent and consequent, but often the second phrase is extended
Topics - term for the different and contrasting styles in Classic-era music that serve as subjects for musical discourse

Chamber Music
Wrote Quartets
Haydn Quartets
-show mature capacity to absorb the essence of Haydn's achievement without becoming a mere imitator
String Quintets
-2 violins, 2 violas, cello

Serenades and Divertimentos
-intended for background music
Eine kline Nachtmusik
-serenade, 4 movements

Piano Concertos
wrote 17 in Vienna
-written as vehicles for his own concert and intended them to please entire range of listeners
-followed traditional 3 movement pattern in the fast-slow-fast
-first movement blended elements of ritornello and sonata form as do the concertos of J.C. Bach, Mozart's primary model for piano concertos
Ex: Piano Concerto in A major, K. 488
-solo sections resemble exposition, development and recap of sonata form - soloist accompanied by and sometimes in dialogue with orchestra
-opening orch ritornello introduces the movement's first theme, transition, second theme, and closing theme, but remains in tonic
-ritornello returns, greatly abbreviated, to mark the end of the first solo and end of the movement
Like Bach - cadenza for soloist but his usually interrupts the final ritornello
-punctuates the long solo sections with passages for full orchestra that serve as further ritornellos
-second movement resembles lyrical aria
-final movement typically a rondo or sonata rondo on themes with popular character
-grow in length
-first opera buffa - Finta Semplice
-First singspiel - Bastien und Bastienne
-Idomeneo - his best opera seria - shows reformist tendenceis of Gluck and influence of French opera

Abudction from the Seraglio - established his fame
Jannesary music
-used in overture
-shrill winds, drums and cymbals

Da Ponte operas: Cosi, Nozze, Giovanni
-lifted conventions of opera buffa - greater depth to characters, intensifying the social tensions between classes, and introducing moral issues
Mezzo carattere - characters who occupy a middle ground between serious and comic
Finales - characters clash, combining realism with ongoing dramatic action
-Mozart's orchestration, particularly his use of winds, plays and important role in defining characters and situations

The Marriage of Figaro
-libretto by da Ponte
-comic opera with serious characters; middle ground characters (mezzo carattere)
-risque by moral standars
-encores had been forbidden except solo arias

Don Giovanni - comedy but serious elements
Opening trio: Leporello, Don G and Donna Anna (3 levels of characters displayed in music)
Act I Finale - 3 onstage dances: Minuet, contredanse and rustic waltz
Ah fuggi - out of style, Handel/Scarlatti

Magic Flute, first great German opera
interweaves threads of many 18th century musical styles and traditions
-vocal opulence of Italian opera seria
-folk humor of German singspiel
-solo aria
-buffo ensemble
-new kind of accompanied recit applicable to German words
-solemn choral scenes
-revival of Baroque chorale-prelude technique, with contrapuntal accompaniment
-reconciliation of older and newer styles is summed up in overture - combines sonata form with fugue
-cultivated genres from the etude and prelude, associated with teaching and types suitable for amateurs, such as dances and nocturnes, to longer, more challenging works, including ballades, scherzos and sonatas
-virtuosity blended with elegant lyricism
-originality in melody, harmony and pianism

Wrote 27 etudes
-intended to develop specific technique
-each addresses specific skill and develops single feature
Ex: parallel/diatonic 3rds
parallel sixths vs. chromatic octaves

-inaugurated genre of concert etude

Preludes Op. 28
cover all major and minor keys (like Bach)
-brief mood pictures
-less challenging than Etudes

Waltzes. mazurkas, polonaises
-stylized dances
-often composed for his students
-evoke ballroom of Vienna (waltzes)
-mazurkas/polonaises = spirit of Poland
-polonaise - courtly aristocratic dance in 3/4
mazurka - Polish folk dance
3/4 frequent accents on second or third beats
often dotted figure on first beat
simple accompaniment
4-measure phrases

short mood pieces
beautiful embellished melodies above
sonorous accompaniment
draws on bel canto style of Bellini opera airas
Ex: D-flat Major Op.27 No. 2
expansive accompaniment
angular melody
virtuoso elements parallel thirds + sixths (characteristic of vocal nocturne)

Ballades and Scherzos
longer and more demanding
1 of the first (w/ Clara) to use name ballade for instrumental piece
-charm and fire of Polish narrative ballads combined with fresh turns in harmony and form

not joking or playful as name implies but serious and passionate
but tricky and quirky particularly in rhythm and thematic material

all 4 movt: sonata form, minuet or scherzo, slow, and finale
Ex: No. 2 B-flat minor
3rd mvt funeral march
-orchestrated and played at his funeral
bel canto style "beautiful singing"
elegant, effortless technique and equally beautiful tone throughout entire range, agility, flexibility, and control
much of it improvised

Rossini operas
voice most important

General style
combining catchy melodies and snappy rhythms and clear phrases
laced with coloratura
often repeats ideas with new twist
spare orchestration supports singers instead of competing
fondness for 3rd-related keys

"Rossini crescendo"
building up excitement by repeating a phrase louder each time and often higher pitch - sometimes giving the effect of spinning out of control

Scene structure
simple recit in comedies
serious operas and some part of comic opera Rossini and librettists developed scene structure that distributed story more evenly

typical scene
instrumental intro and recit section
1. scena - italian for "scene" that is accompanied by orch
2. ensuing aria has 2 sections
lyrical cantabile
lively and brilliant cabaletta

cantabile expresses relatively calm moods such as pensiveness, sadness or hope

cabaletta - more active feelings anger/joy part or all of cabaletta is repeated - perhaps improvised with embellishments

most arias also have a middle section between cantabile and cabaletta = tempo di mezzo (middle mvt)
usually some kind of transition or interruption by other characters in which something happens to alter the situation

duet ensemble has similar form but cantabile is usually preceded by an opening section - tempo d'attaco in whcih characters trade melodic phrases

finale of an act culminates in a fast stretta corresponding to the cabaletta of an aria or ensemble

Ex: The Barber of Seville
opear buffa with bel canto
Rossina's famous aria: una voce poco fa
no opening recit
1st part of cantabile - she narrates being serenaded by and falling in love with Lindoro
Broken into small phrases punctuated by orchestra chords
-style appropriate with a narration

Best known serious opera
Guillaume Tell (William Tell)
written for Paris opera

Opera Overtures
most in 2 parts
long slow intro with a lyrical melody for wind instruments followed by a fast binary form without repeats - shaped by exposition of a sonata form
own libretti

presented ideas in a series of essay
The Artwork of the Future and Opera and Drama
-saw himself as Beethoven's true successor
-believed in absolute oneness of drama and music

Gesamtkunstwerk (total or collective work)
poetry, scenic design, staging, action and music work together to form Gesamtkunstwerk

vision of new music and drama: music drama
(didn't like that term)
instead he called his works operas, dramas or festival stage plays

core of drama = music

Early Operas
(before concept of Gesamtkunstwerk)
several operas that drew directly on his predecessors
The Flying Dutchman (Romantic opera tradition of Weber)

The Ring Cycle
Cycle of 4 dramas

German national epic
woven out of stories from medieval German epic poems and Nordic legends - linked by common characters and motives
-largely about the value of lvoe and people willingness to abandon it for worldly ends
"ring" refers to gold he stole
gives wearer limitless power
Wotan, ruler of gods tricks him out of it
Alberich puts a curse on ring

Leitmotive (leading motive)
usually in orchestra at first appearance or mention of the subject and by its repetition during subsequent appearances or citations
-musical label
-may be varied, developed or transformed as plot develops

Ring Cycle examples
mention of the ring
when he curses it it's stated backwards

-instead of regular meter and rhythm - poetry features vigorous, changing speech rhythms marked by Stabreim (alliteration)

Later Operas
Tristan und Isolde
"Tristan chord"
resolves to A then A-sharp then B
-chromatic harmonies, delayed resolutions
inexpressible yearning
Act I exemplifies Gesamtkuntswerk (scene on boat)
supported/identified with Italian Risorgimento (italian unification)
-camouflaged patriotic messages in historical dramas
"Viva Verdi" nationalist cry

works of the theater, vivid characterization, sharp contrast, fluid and concise dramatic and musical structure
prime reason for popularity:
ability to capture character, feeling and situation in memorable melodies
simple forms: AABA - easy to follow

-usually chose subjects himself
preferred stores that had succeeded as spoken dramas
-focused on tragic pots (stayed away from comedy as his first comic opera had failed)

always wrote with singers in mind
-demanded singers remain subordinate to the composer (unlike bel canto era)

Nabucco - 1st great success

turned from historical subjects to dramas centered on interpersonal conflict

Ex: Rigoletto
hunchback court jester at odds with the courtiers around him sings declamatory arioso style and lacks real aria

Employer Duke of Mantua is shown in tuneful arias that stick to predictable forms
Ex: La donna e mobile
-his claim women are fickle rings truer about himself
-irresistible carefree waltz rhythm

4 characters sing each on a different style to convey own personality and mood

next operas
Il trovatore
La traviata

La traviata - replaced overture with briefer prelude that sets the scene and introduces important themes to come
-one of first tragic operas to be set in the present rather than in historical past
-linked to contemporary trend of realism in lit and art
-scene of final Act follows structure of Rossini for duets (no embellishment allowed)
tempo d'attaco
slow cantabile
tempo di mezzo
fast cabaletta

-later operas more continuous, harmonies more daring
important influence: French Grand Opera and Meyerbeer
Aida has all traits of mature style
-commissioned for Cairo opera - Egyptian subject - exotic color and spectacle

only 2 operas after Aida
-Fallstaff - comedy
gift for melody and simple, direct expression of emotion
Orchestral Works
-knew he had to match standards set by Beethoven

Worked on Symphony No. 1 for 20 years -immediate success prompted his to write another
-conventional sequence of movements
fast, slow, light movement, fast
not scherzo, but lyrical intermezzo or character piece for light movement
-echoes Beethoven's 5th by moving from C minor and C major and from struggle to triumph

Symphony No. 3
wide melodic spans, cross relations b/w major and minor forms of the tonic triad; metric ambiguity between triple and duple divisions of the bar
finale: Brahms trademark: dash of simultaneous triple and duple divisions of the best

Symphony No. 4
chaconne - reflects fascination with Baroque
set of variations on a bass ostinato and on a harmonic pattern
recalls Eroica Symphony

Greatest concerto: Piano Conerto No. 2
integration of piano and orchestra make it the most symphonic concerto

Chamber music
most popular: Quintet for Piano and Strings in F minor
-opening 1st movement - continuously building on germinal ideas Schoenburg called developing variation

Piano Music
style characterized by full sonority, broken figuration, frequent doubling of melodic line in octaves, thirds, 6ths, multiple chord like appogiaturas, frequent use of cross rhythms

Variation and Fugue on Theme of Handel
difficult etude like Variation on Theme of Paganini
Waltzes, Hungarian Danges

Brahms Songs
Schubert as model
voice primary partner - piano rich with supporting figuration
strophic and modified strophic

Brahms Choral Works
German Requiem
Ein deutches Requiem
-text not liturgical words of Latin Requiem but passages in German, chosen from Old Testament, Apocrypha, and New Testament
one of most influential composers of 20th century
born in Vienna, son of Jewish shopkeeper
-taught privately: Berg and Webern
-after WW I founded and directed Society for Private Musical Performances in Vienna

made famous by innovations
Atonality - music that avoids establishing a tonal center
twelve tone method - form of atonality based on systematic orderings of the 12 notes of the chromatic scale

Tonal Works
Verklarte Nacht
tone poem
followed romantic tradition (grew from Tristan)
turned away from late Romantic gigantism and toward chamber music
used Brahm's principle of developing variation and applied it to his own works

Atonal Music
began to composer pieces that avoided establishing any note as tonal center
-embraced this because music of the late 19th century had heavy chromaticism, distant modulations and prolong dissonances - declaration at the end of a piece seemed arbitrary

manipulated the notes and intervals of a motive to create chords and new melodies
treating notes of a moteive containing three or more pitches just as we might a triad or other tonal chord
-after called it a set
-pitch-class set, using pitch-class to mean one of the 12 notes of the chromatic scale and its enharmonic equivalents in any octave
-convenient way to label sets is to arrange the notes in the most compact array from lowest to highest and number each pitch-class by the number of semitones above the first one

chromatic saturation - appearance of all 12 pitch-classes within a segment of music

Pierrot Lunaire
cycle of 20 songs
combination of instruments is unique to each movement (nonrepetition)
Sprechstimme - speaking voice, approximating the written pitches in the gliding tones of speech - innovative idea that blends traditional notion of song and melodrama
Russian Period
-most important works - ballets The Firebird, Petrushka, and the Rite of Spring - all commissioned by Diaghilev for the Ballets Russes in Paris

based on russian folk tales
stems from Russian nationalist tradition and exoticism of Rimsky-Korsakov
Humans are characterized by diatonic music and supernatural creates in octatonic and chromatic realms

static harmony with repetitive melody and rhythmic patterns as well as abrupt shifts from one block to another
Petrushka chord (F-sharp and C major triads)

Rite of Spring
used folk melodies
Primitivism - deliberate representation of the elements, crude and uncultured and cast aside the sophistication and stylishness of modern life and trained artistry
Characteristics of his mature style can be heard in the first scene, Danse des adolescentes
-each pulse is played with the same strength, negating hierarchy of beats and offbeats that is essential to meter
-in last movement he adopts reduced meter to pulse rapidly changing meters and unpredictable alternation of notes with rests

WWI forced him to focus on smaller works
L'histoire du soldat - 6 solo instruments

Neoclassicism - new stage in Stravinsky's career. A broad movement from 1910s to 1950s in which composers revived, imitated or evoked the styles, genres and forms of pre-Romantic music
-marks a turn away from Russian folk music and toward earlier Western art music as a source of imitation, quotation or allusion

Serial period
-serial music
music that used the 12 tone method; used especially for music that extends the same general approach to series in parameters other than pitch
wrote in this technique from 1953 on
worked in obscurity for most of his career, late recognition
born in Danbury Connecticut
Studied with Horatio Parker at Yale
Built and insurance business

Synthesized international and regional musical traditions
Fluent composers in
American vernacular music
-grew up with parlor songs and minstrels

Protestant church music
-heard hymns in church and revival meetings - played them as organist

European classical music
-taught and performed the classics

Experimental music
-typical approach was to preserve most of the traditional rules but change others to see what would happen
Polytonal - Melody in one key and accompaniment in another

The Unanswered Question
flute and trumpet are atonal
first to combine tonal and atonal layers in the same piece

Second Symphony
-themes from American popular songs and hymns
-borrowed transitional work from Bach, Brahms and Wagner

3rd Symphony, Four Violin Sonatas, First Piano Sonata
-all feature movements based on American hymn tunes
-cumulative form - used by Ives in which the principal theme appears in its entirely only at the end of the work, preceded by its development

Later pieces were programmatic
Three Places in New England
Concord Sonata
Collage - multiple tunes, layered on top of each other in a musical collage or woven together like a patchwork quilt to invoke the way experiences are recalled in memory

General Booth Enters into Heaven
-art song with musical content drawn primarily from American vernacular music, church music and experimental music