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Italian sixth chord
An augmented-sixth chord containing the half step above the dominant (in the bass), the half step below the dominant and the tonic.
An inventory of the flats and sharps used consistently in a composition or in a section of a composition, grouped together and placed immediately after the clef sign at the beginning of each staff.
Broken triad formations created by the important pitches in a melody, normally involving nonadjacent pitches.
In popular music and jazz, the representation of the music through the melody along with chord symbols place above it to guide musicians in its performance.
The functional name given to the major or minor scale degree one halfstep below the tonic, or to the triad formed on this pitch.
Short horizontal lines representing an extension of the staff, drawn through the stems of notes too high or too low to be places directly on the staff.
One of six church modes that predated and led to the major and minor scales, viewable today as a major scale with a raised fourth degree.
Major 9 th chord
A five-member chord extending a major triad with the addition of a major seventh and major ninth above the root.
Major seventh chord
The chord formed by the addition of a major seventh above the root of a major triad. It most often is found on the subdominant in a major key (IV7) and on the submediant and mediant (VI7 and III7) in a minor key.
A 3-note chord consisting of two intervals above its root — a major 3 rd and a perfect 5 th — and serving as the tonic, dominant, and subdominant in a major-key work.
The functional name given to the third degree of a major or minor scale or to the triad formed on this pitch.
Turning a melodic figure "upside down" so that its contour and interval structure are a mirror of the original form, with upward steps and leaps becoming downward steps and leaps of the same interval, and vice versa.
The natural minor scale with the sixth and seventh degrees raised by one half-step in ascent. In descending passages, the sixth and seventh degrees usually are those of the natural minor scale. It is the form most often used for minor-key melodies.
The tendency of a melody to define a tonal center by emphasizing that pitch in various ways.
A regularly recurring pattern of strong and weak pulses that forms the background on which the many rhythms of a piece of music are imposed.
A type of syncopation involving the temporary but extended displacement of the primary accent of a measure.
Minor 9 th chord
A five-member chord extending a minor triad with the addition of a minor seventh and major ninth above the root.
Minor seventh chord
The chord formed by the addition of a minor seventh above the root of a minor triad. It is most often found on the supertonic of a major key and the subdominant on the minor key.
A 3-note chord consisting of 2 intervals above its roota minor 3rd and a P 5th — and serving as the tonic for a minor-key work.
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