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The adult years are difficult to divide into discrete periods because

the timing of important milestones varies greatly among individuals.

Biological aging

is under way in early adulthood.

The _______________ theory of aging receives some support from kinship studies indicating that longevity is a family trait.

genetically programmed

Noras grandfather lived to be 87, and her father is still alive at the age of 98. Nora concludes that longevity is inherited and anticipates a very long life. Nora should know that

rather than inheriting longevity directly, people probably inherit risk factors that influence their chances of dying earlier or later.

According to the random events theory of biological aging,

DNA in body cells is gradually damaged through spontaneous or externally caused mutations.

Which of the following statements about the random events theory of biological aging is true?

Animal studies confirm an increase in DNA breaks and deletions and damage to other cellular material with age.

One probable cause of age-related DNA and cellular abnormalities is

the release of free radicals.

In the chemistry of aging, a free radical is a

naturally occurring, highly reactive chemical that forms in the presence of oxygen.

ree radicals are thought to be involved in

disorders of aging.

A _____ will probably display the slowest rate of free-radical damage to DNA.


Dr. Rodin is conducting a study on environmental factors that contribute to telomere length. Dr. Rodin can expect to find that telomere shortening

predicts earlier death.

_____ can cause telomeres to lengthen.


Which of the following is true about telomere length?

Persistent psychological stress is linked to telomere shortness.

When adults make positive lifestyle changes, telomeres

respond by lengthening.

According to the cross-linkage theory of aging, bonds between protein fibers in connective tissue can lead to

loss of flexibility in the skin and clogging of arteries.

In adults, a gradual drop in growth hormone is associated with

loss of muscle and bone mass.

Jay wants to protect the health of his endocrine system. The safest approach for Jay is

a healthy diet and physical activity.

Decreased vigor of the immune response seems to be

genetically programmed, but intensified by other aging processes.

Physical changes in early adulthood are usually

so gradual that most are hardly noticeable.

Which of the following individuals has a higher risk of hypertension and heart disease?

Sharese, an African-American female

In healthy individuals, the hearts ability to meet the bodys oxygen requirements under typical conditions

does not change during adulthood.

Darlene has heavy deposits of plaque containing cholesterol and fats collected on the walls of her main arteries. Darlene has


When an adult suffers from atherosclerosis, it typically develops

early in life and progresses during middle adulthood.

_____ may heighten the effects of a high-fat diet.

Sex hormones

Yao is 45 years old. How has the maximum vital capacity of his lungs changed from when he was 25?

It has decreased by about 20 percent.

Professor Turner is interested in studying the upper biological limit of motor capacity. Professor Turner will likely study

outstanding athletes.

Which of the following motor skills will probably peak earliest in life?

speed of limb movement

The upper biological limit of motor capacity is reached in the

first part of early adulthood.

Which of the following athletes skills will probably peak latest in life?

Rolf, a long-distance runner

The immune response is the combined work of specialized cells that neutralize or destroy _________ in the body.


_____ originate in the bone marrow, mature in the thymus, and attack foreign substances directly.

T cells

Which of the following best illustrates the relationship between stress and the immune system?

Jenny has a nagging cold throughout semester finals.

The most important cause of the age-related drop in female fertility is

a decline in the number and quality of ova.

In males, semen volume, sperm motility, and percentage of normal sperm decrease gradually after age


_____ show(s) strong and continuous relationships with almost every disease and health indicator.

Income, education, and occupational status

Which of the following is true about the relationships among SES, education, and health?

Economically advantaged individuals sustain better health over most of their adult lives.

Which of the following may explain why SES disparities in health and mortality are larger in the United States than in other industrialized nations?

Besides the lack of universal health insurance, poverty-stricken U.S. families have lower incomes.

Most Americans eat

because it is time to do so.

When overweight and obesity rates are combined, ____ percent of Americans are considered to be at an unhealthy weight.


In the United States,

many people show large weight gains between the ages of 25 and 40.

Nadine, an average-weight adult, gained a small amount of weight between the ages of 25 and 50. Nadine should know that

this is a normal part of aging, resulting from a drop in basal metabolic rate.

Compared with people of normal weight, obese individuals are more likely to be

denied apartment rentals and college loans.

Marleen, an obese adult, lost 20 pounds over the course of a year. Within the next two years, she is most likely to

gain back 20 or more pounds.

Dwayne, an obese adult, wants to lose weight and keep it off. His weight loss program should include

use of social support.

Family and friends can help a dieter by

offering encouragement and helping foster the dieters self-esteem.

U.S. national dietary recommendations include reducing dietary fat to _____ percent of total caloric intake.


_____ fat generally comes from meat and dairy products and is solid at room temperature.


The main reason for limiting saturated fats is that they are strongly connected with

cardiovascular disease.

When it comes to dietary fat, the best suggestion is

to eat less fat of all kinds.

About 40 percent of Americans engage in

no regular brief sessions of even light activity.

Regular physical activity is linked to

reduced incidence of cancer.

Which of the following is true about exercise?

It produces high-density lipoproteins that help remove LDLs.

In the United States, drug taking peaks around ages

19 to 22.

The most commonly abused substances in the United States are

cigarettes and alcohol.

Which of the following is true about cigarette smoking?

Most smokers picked up their habit before age 21.

Alcoholism is a more common problem in cultures where alcohol is

a carefully controlled sign of adulthood.

Which of the following statements about alcohol use in adulthood is true?

About half of police activities in large cities involve alcohol-related offenses.

The most successful treatment for alcoholism

combines counseling, group support, and aversion therapy.

At the end of high school, about 65 percent of U.S. young people have had sexual intercourse; by age 25, ________ have done so.

nearly all

Sexual partners, whether dating, cohabiting, or married, tend to be

similar in age and education.

Ann Marie has begun visiting matchmaking websites. She should know that

18 percent of online ties that evolve into offline relationships last for more than a year.

Contemporary men and women

differ little in average number of lifetime sexual partners.

When adults of any age are asked how many sexual partners they have had in the past year, the usual reply is


Researchers have found that satisfying sex generally involves

an emotionally fulfilling relationship.

Which statement most accurately reflects the sentiments of most Americans toward gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals?

Most Americans support civil liberties and equal employment opportunities for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals.

Which of the following is true about research on homosexuality?

There is limited information about the sex lives of homosexuals because about 30 percent of same-sex couples do not report themselves as such in surveys.

Homosexuals tend to live in

college towns.

The majority of rape victims are __________, and the abusers are __________.

under age 30; men they know well

Which of the following is an accurate statement about sexual coercion?

People of all SES and ethnic groups are offenders and victims.

Which of the following is true about female-initiated coercive sexual behavior against men?

Victims report that women who committed these acts often threatened to end a relationship unless the victim complied.

Which of the following is true about rape prevention and treatment?

Practically no services are available for victimized men, who are often too embarrassed to come forward.

Cross-cultural studies find that premenstrual syndrome is

equally common all over the world.

A strong cardiovascular response, interference with immune system functioning, and reduced digestive activity are all symptoms of

psychological stress.

Compared with _________ adults, ________ adults show a stronger cardiovascular response to stress.

higher-SES; low-SES

_____ adults are better than _____adults at coping with stress.

Middle-aged; young

Which of the following is true about cognitive development in early adulthood?

The cognitive changes of early adulthood are supported by further development of the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes.

According to some researchers, cognitive development continues beyond Piagets formal operational stage to the ____________ level.

postformal thought

Bryson and his co-workers are developing a new sales strategy. When Brysons conclusions differ radically from the rest of the team, he considers the justifiability of his conclusions and revises them slightly. Bryson is engaged in

epistemic cognition.

Younger students who divide information, values, and authority into right and wrong or good and bad engage in

dualistic thinking.

In college, Edward came to the realization that his own beliefs were often subjective. He noted that his roommate, who held vastly different beliefs from his own, had his own truth. Edward was engaged in

relativistic thinking.

Karen considered two theories she studied in her college philosophy course. She determined that neither theory was entirely accurate, and she tried to formulate a more satisfying perspective that synthesized contradictions. Karen was engaged in

commitment within relativistic thinking.

With the birth of Brendas first child, she felt more fulfilled than ever before. However, she also acknowledged feelings of concern and fear over being able to meet all of her parental responsibilities while maintaining personal happiness and satisfaction. Brendas thinking reflects

cognitive-affective complexity.

Once attained, __________ has a profound impact on information processing.


Which of the following is true about creativity in adulthood?

Creativity is a function of career age, not chronological age.

Jim is a musician, Joy is an artist, and Danielle is a scientist. Which of the following statements is probably true?

Danielle's creativity will peak later than that of the other two.

Which of the following statements is true?

Creativity demands both time and energy.

From the freshman to the senior year of college, most students

become better at reflecting on the quality of their thinking.

_____ is one of the most consistent predictors of cognitive change in students during the college years.

Residence hall living

Which student is most at risk for dropping out of college?

Ian, a freshman at a school with open enrollment

Colleges that __________ have a higher percentage of dropouts.

do little to help high-risk students

Eight-year-old Marcie is involved in community theater. She fantasizes about starring in a Broadway musical. Marcies desire to be an actress

will probably bear little relation to the vocational decisions that she will eventually make.

During the _________ period of vocational development, individuals think about careers in terms of their interests, and later in terms of their abilities and values.


During the realistic period of vocational development, the first step is often ________ and the final phase is ________________.

exploration; crystallization

Max enjoys working with ideas; Madison is emotional and has a high need for individual expression. According to Hollands six personality types, Max is __________ and Madison is __________.

investigative; artistic

Bill is persuasive and adventurous. Bella prefers working with objects. According to Hollands six personality types, Bill is __________ and Bella is __________.

enterprising; realistic

Alan likes well-structured tasks and values material possessions. Alecia prefers working with people. According to Hollands six personality types, Alan is __________ and Alecia is __________.

conventional; social

Young peoples vocational aspirations correlate strongly with their

parents jobs.

Francine is preparing to become an oncologist. Which of the following is most likely to have influenced her vocational choice?

having a close relationship with her high school science teacher

Which of the following is true about gender stereotypes in vocational choice?

A reason for women's attraction to male-dominated careers is a change in gender-role attitudes.

Which of the following women is most likely to thrive in a nontraditional career?

Raelynne, whose three aunts have successfully dealt with familycareer role conflict

American employers regard recent high school graduates as

poorly prepared for skilled business occupations.

Troy is an American high school graduate who chose not to go on to college. He is likely to

be working in a low-paid, unskilled job.

Which of the following is true about Germany's work-study apprenticeship system?

Students spend two years of compulsory education combining courses with an apprenticeship.

Which of the following is true about men who enter traditionally female-dominated careers, compared to their traditional career counterparts?

They are more interested in working with people.

Chris is a male nurse. Because of his male minority status in the nursing field,

his co-workers may assume that he is more knowledgeable than he actually is.

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