Anatomy and Physiology: Urinary System
Terms in this set (8)
Inferior Vena Cava
The renal arteries normally arise off the side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood. Each is directed across the crus of the diaphragm, so as to form nearly a right angle with the aorta.
There are two renal veins, a left and a right. They branch off the inferior vena cava and drain oxygen-depleted blood from the kidneys. As they enter the kidneys, each vein separates into two parts.
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs found along the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity. The left kidney is located slightly higher than the right kidney because the right side of the liver is much larger than the left side.
The kidneys filter metabolic wastes, excess ions, and chemicals from the blood to form urine.
The ureters are a pair of tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Gravity and peristalsis of smooth muscle tissue in the walls of the ureters move urine toward the urinary bladder.
The urinary bladder is a sac-like hollow organ used for the storage of urine. The urinary bladder is located along the body's midline at the inferior end of the pelvis. Urine entering the urinary bladder from the ureters slowly fills the hollow space of the bladder and stretches its elastic walls. The walls of the bladder allow it to stretch to hold anywhere from 600 to 800 milliliters of urine.
The urethra is the tube through which urine passes from the bladder to the exterior of the body. The female urethra is around 2 inches long and ends inferior to the clitoris and superior to the vaginal opening. In males, the urethra is around 8 to 10 inches long and ends at the tip of the penis. The urethra is also an organ of the male reproductive system as it carries sperm out of the body through the penis.