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asexual reproduction

process in which a single cell or set of cells produces offspring that inherit all their genetic material from one parent

sexual reproduction

process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent


combination of DNA and protein molecules, in the form of long, thin fibers, making up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell


condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide

sister chromatid

one of a pair of identical chromosomes created before a cell divides


region where two sister chromatids are joined tightly together

cell cycle

sequence of events from the production of a eukaryotic cell to the time the cell itself reproduces


stage of the cell cycle during which a cell carries out its metabolic processes and performs its functions in the body

mitotic phase

stage of the cell cycle when a cell is actively dividing


process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei


process by which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided in two; usually follows mitosis and meiosis


framework of microtubules that guide the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis


region of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contains structures called centrioles

cell plate

disk containing cell wall material that develops in plant cells during cytokinesis, eventually dividing the cell into two daughter cells

malignant tumor

mass of abnormal cells resulting from uncontrolled cancer cell division

benign tumor

mass of cells that remain at their original site


disease caused by severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle


spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body


type of cell division that produces four cells, each with half as many chromosomes as the parent cell


display of a person's 46 chromosomes

homologous chromosome

one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent

sex chromosome

one of two chromosomes of the 23rd pair of human chromosomes, which determine an individual's gender


having two homologous sets of chromosomes


egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair


having a single set of chromosomes


the fusion of the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell and the nucleus of a haploid egg cell, forming a diploid zygote


diploid cell formed when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with the nucleus of a haploid egg cell


group of four chromatids formed during prophase I of meiosis by the two sister chromatids in each of the two homologous chromosomes

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