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Chapter 11-13

STUDY
PLAY
The "looking-glass self" refers to
perceptions of self that are based on social interactions with others
At what age does personality tend to fully "gel" (i.e., begins to predict adult personality)?
Elementary school years
The main development trend concerning vocational identity in late adolescence is that
choices become more realistic
An overall evaluation of your own self-worth BEST defines your
self-esteem
Mia has just become concerned with how she compares to her peers. For example, she wants to know if she can kick a soccer ball farther or read better than her friends. Mia is in which of Erikson's psychosocial stages?
industry vs. inferiority
Research on early temperament and later development suggests that
there is a meaningful relationship between early temperment and adult personality
_____ is defined as an organized combination of an individual's unique attributes, motives, and behaviors.
Personality
The _____ identity status would BEST be described as "I haven't really thought about it, but my parents think..."
foreclosure
Which is not one of the "Big Five" traits?
inferiority
What factor appears MOST responsible for the decline in self-esteem sometimes seen in adolescence?
changing body image
"I am a boy. Therefore I want to do the things boys do." This statement is reflective of which theoretical perspective regarding gender-role development?
cognitive-developmental theory
Eagly argues that gender role stereotypes
are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves
The goal of the gender role aspect called "agency" is to prepare a person for
individual achievement
Compared to 50 years ago, adolescents in the United States are now
more likely to engage in sexual intercourse
According to gender schema theory, if four-year-old Ginny (who classifies herself as a girl) believes that jumping rope is a "girl thing" and playing football is a "boy thing" then Ginny would MOST LIKELY
think that jumping rope is for her (even if she has never done it in the past)
The impact of sexual abuse appears to be MOST severe when the abuse was a
frequent, long-term event involving a close relative
With regard to actual psychological differences between males and females, research has consistently found that, on average
males are more physically active
An androgynous person would have a _____ masculinity score and a _____ femininity score.
high; high
Mr. and Mrs. Hill have two children, Jack and Jill. They make no bones about telling Jack that he should be an engineer, since men are good at math, and that Jill should be a nurse, since women are good at taking care of other people. Given the fact that male-female differences in math and nurturing are questionable, the Hill's message BEST reflects what your text calls a(n)
gender-role stereotype
Gender schemata
influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender
From the time they are born, twins Johnny (a boy) and Joannie (a girl) are treated diversely. For example, whenever Johnny plays with a truck his parents praise his behavior. Whenever Joannie shows an interest in a doll her parents praise her actions. A social learning theorist would likely argue that this _____ will likely lead to distinct gender roles for Johnny and Joannie.
Differential reinforcement
Spanky, Alfalfa, and the rest of the boys in the first grade class have decided that from now on boys will only play with boys and never with girls. This decision provides a nice example of the concept of
- gender segregation
Which of the following BEST exemplifies prosocial behavior?
stopping to help a stranger change a flat tire
Having a theory of mind indicates that an individual
understands that mental states exist and guide behavior
Highly aggressive youth tend to
believe that their aggressive acts will product positive consequences
What is the most effective way a parent can help instill theory-of-mind skills in their child?
Encourage them to think about how others may feel.
Which neurological component has been implicated in the development of a theory of mind?
mirror neurons
According to Dodge's social information-processing model, the main thing wrong with teenagers who commit violent, antisocial acts is
the way they interpret and process social cues
Rates of aggression and violence tend to be highest in
lower socioeconomic highly transient neighborhoods
The self-statement, "Stealing is wrong because I am taking something that I do not deserve" is the BEST example of the _____ component of morality.
Cognitive
Winston sees his brother steal a pack of gum from the drug store and get away with it. The next time Winston goes to the drug store, he steals a pack of gum. According to the _____ perspective on moral development, Pete's behavior is the result of _____.
social learning; observational learning
Which statement reflects Kohlberg's conventional morality?
Buckle up, it's the law
Empathy refers to
Vicariously experiencing another's feelings
Which is the BEST example of a power assertion form of discipline?
taking away a child's television privileges
Every time his daughter Luci swears (something he does not like), Lou walks away from her (pays her no attention). This strategy provides a good example of the _____ parental approach.
love withdrawal
In summarizing the BEST parenting approach for fostering moral growth in children, Hoffman suggests a "blend of _____."
frequent inductions, occasional power assertions, and a lot of affection
Studies on perspective-taking indicate that it is not until a child attains formal operational thinking that s/he is able to
Mentally "juggle" several perspectives of others
Macy really wants the cool new jacket she has just seen in the store, but she does not have enough money to buy the jacket. For a second she thinks about stealing the jacket but decides that while stealing is not wrong, she might get punished if she is caught. Macy's moral reasoning appears to be at Kohlberg's _____ level.
preconventional