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The "looking-glass self" refers to

perceptions of self that are based on social interactions with others

At what age does personality tend to fully "gel" (i.e., begins to predict adult personality)?

Elementary school years

The main development trend concerning vocational identity in late adolescence is that

choices become more realistic

An overall evaluation of your own self-worth BEST defines your


Mia has just become concerned with how she compares to her peers. For example, she wants to know if she can kick a soccer ball farther or read better than her friends. Mia is in which of Erikson's psychosocial stages?

industry vs. inferiority

Research on early temperament and later development suggests that

there is a meaningful relationship between early temperment and adult personality

_____ is defined as an organized combination of an individual's unique attributes, motives, and behaviors.


The _____ identity status would BEST be described as "I haven't really thought about it, but my parents think..."


Which is not one of the "Big Five" traits?


What factor appears MOST responsible for the decline in self-esteem sometimes seen in adolescence?

changing body image

"I am a boy. Therefore I want to do the things boys do." This statement is reflective of which theoretical perspective regarding gender-role development?

cognitive-developmental theory

Eagly argues that gender role stereotypes

are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves

The goal of the gender role aspect called "agency" is to prepare a person for

individual achievement

Compared to 50 years ago, adolescents in the United States are now

more likely to engage in sexual intercourse

According to gender schema theory, if four-year-old Ginny (who classifies herself as a girl) believes that jumping rope is a "girl thing" and playing football is a "boy thing" then Ginny would MOST LIKELY

think that jumping rope is for her (even if she has never done it in the past)

The impact of sexual abuse appears to be MOST severe when the abuse was a

frequent, long-term event involving a close relative

With regard to actual psychological differences between males and females, research has consistently found that, on average

males are more physically active

An androgynous person would have a _____ masculinity score and a _____ femininity score.

high; high

Mr. and Mrs. Hill have two children, Jack and Jill. They make no bones about telling Jack that he should be an engineer, since men are good at math, and that Jill should be a nurse, since women are good at taking care of other people. Given the fact that male-female differences in math and nurturing are questionable, the Hill's message BEST reflects what your text calls a(n)

gender-role stereotype

Gender schemata

influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender

From the time they are born, twins Johnny (a boy) and Joannie (a girl) are treated diversely. For example, whenever Johnny plays with a truck his parents praise his behavior. Whenever Joannie shows an interest in a doll her parents praise her actions. A social learning theorist would likely argue that this _____ will likely lead to distinct gender roles for Johnny and Joannie.

Differential reinforcement

Spanky, Alfalfa, and the rest of the boys in the first grade class have decided that from now on boys will only play with boys and never with girls. This decision provides a nice example of the concept of

- gender segregation

Which of the following BEST exemplifies prosocial behavior?

stopping to help a stranger change a flat tire

Having a theory of mind indicates that an individual

understands that mental states exist and guide behavior

Highly aggressive youth tend to

believe that their aggressive acts will product positive consequences

What is the most effective way a parent can help instill theory-of-mind skills in their child?

Encourage them to think about how others may feel.

Which neurological component has been implicated in the development of a theory of mind?

mirror neurons

According to Dodge's social information-processing model, the main thing wrong with teenagers who commit violent, antisocial acts is

the way they interpret and process social cues

Rates of aggression and violence tend to be highest in

lower socioeconomic highly transient neighborhoods

The self-statement, "Stealing is wrong because I am taking something that I do not deserve" is the BEST example of the _____ component of morality.


Winston sees his brother steal a pack of gum from the drug store and get away with it. The next time Winston goes to the drug store, he steals a pack of gum. According to the _____ perspective on moral development, Pete's behavior is the result of _____.

social learning; observational learning

Which statement reflects Kohlberg's conventional morality?

Buckle up, it's the law

Empathy refers to

Vicariously experiencing another's feelings

Which is the BEST example of a power assertion form of discipline?

taking away a child's television privileges

Every time his daughter Luci swears (something he does not like), Lou walks away from her (pays her no attention). This strategy provides a good example of the _____ parental approach.

love withdrawal

In summarizing the BEST parenting approach for fostering moral growth in children, Hoffman suggests a "blend of _____."

frequent inductions, occasional power assertions, and a lot of affection

Studies on perspective-taking indicate that it is not until a child attains formal operational thinking that s/he is able to

Mentally "juggle" several perspectives of others

Macy really wants the cool new jacket she has just seen in the store, but she does not have enough money to buy the jacket. For a second she thinks about stealing the jacket but decides that while stealing is not wrong, she might get punished if she is caught. Macy's moral reasoning appears to be at Kohlberg's _____ level.


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