LCI Glossary of Terms
Terms in this set (59)
A disciplined approach to maintaining order in the workplace, using visual controls, to eliminate waste. The 5S words are sort, set in order, shine/sweep, standardize and self discipline/sustain.
5 why analysis
The problem solving technique used to dig for the root cause of a condition by asking why successively (at least five times) whenever a problem exists in order to get beyond the apparent symptoms. As each answer to the why question is documented, an additional inquiry is made concerning that response.
A one page report prepared on a single 11x17 sheet of paper that adheres to the discipline of PDCA thinking as applied to collaborative problem solving, strategy development or reporting. The A3 includes the background, problem statement, analysis, proposed actions, and the expected results.
An identifiable chunk of work with recognized prerequisite requirements to begin and a recognized state of completion- or conditions of satisfaction. Another way to look at an activity-establish the handoffs for each chunk of work thus defining the activity.
The sum of the total cost of the work actually incurred by architect and CM/GC in connection with the performance of all phases of the project, plus CM/GC's fee. (IFOA- Integrated for of agreement definition).
The absolute maximum project cost, based on the project business case as outlined in exhibit 2, which will be the subject of the validation study. (IFOA- Integrated form of agreement definition).
A request or offer that has resulted in a reliable promise and is ready to be placed on the weekly work plan for performance. An assignment must meet the characteristics for a quality assignment prior to inclusion on the WWP.
Building information modeling (BIM)
The process of generating and managing building data during the life cycle of a building. BIM uses three dimensional (3D), real time, dynamic building modeling software. BIM includes building geometry, spatial relationships, geographic information, and quantities and properties of building components. BIM can include four dimensional (4D) simulations to see how part or all of the facility is intended to be built and 5D capability for model based estimating. BIM provides the platform for simultaneous conversations related to the design of the product and its delivery process.
The amount of work that can be produced by an individual specialist or work group in a given period of time.
Commitment based planning
A planning system that is based on making and securing reliable promises in a team based setting.
Conditions of satisfaction
An explicit description by a customer of all the actual requirements that must be satisfied by the performer in order for the customer to feel that he or she received exactly what was wanted.
A library of more than 100 standard contract documents written and endorsed by a coalition of more than 40 leading design and construction industry organizations, including LCI. The consensus Docs 300 agreement is a standard IFOA that incorporates Lean practices in the agreement.
Choosing by advantages (CBA)
CBA is a tested and effective sound decision making system developed by Jim Suhr (1999) for determine the best decision by looking at the advantages of each option. CBAs five phases of decision making:
1. stage setting: establish the purpose and context for the decision
2. innovation: formulate an adequate set of alternatives
3. decision making: choose the alternative with the greatest total importance of advantages
4. reconsideration: change the decision if it should be changed or improved on
5. implementation: making the decision happen, adjust as needed, and evaluate the process and results
An item or requirement that will prevent an activity from starting, advancing or completing as planned. Typical constraints on design tasks are inputs from others, clarity of requirements criteria for what is to be produced or provided, approvals or releases, and labor or equipment resources. Typical constraints on construction tasks are the completion of design or prerequisite work; availability of materials, information and directives. Screening tasks for readiness is assessing the status of their constraints. Removing constraints is making a task ready to be assigned.
A list of constraints with identification of an individual promising to resolve the item by an agreed date. Typically developed during a review of the six week look ahead plan when it is discovered that activities are not constraint free.
Developing a model of the cost components and systems specific to a project and structuring it in a manner that the components and cost systems can be continuously updated either via benchmarks, metrics or detailed estimated to provide the team with a constantly up to date cost model for the project. In the TVD environment, the cost model should allow for projecting what if scenarios based on value decisions that have yet to be made.
A quality task must be defined- it must have a beginning and end- it should be clear to all when it has been completed.
Where two or more tasks are sufficiently related that one cannot be started (or finished) without a certain measure of progress or completion having been achieved by the other waiting on release of work.
An expression of the team's best estimate at the conclusion of the validation phase of what current best practice would produce as a price for the facility reflected in the accompanying basis of design documents. Typically, the expected cost will also be supported by benchmarking or other market data to calibrate the expected cost in light of the market context.
The Japanese term for where value is added or where the work takes place. Lean experts encourage going to the gemba to see how things are really done and where there is opportunity to eliminate or reduce waste.
Integrated form of agreement (IFOA)
A multi party agreement that includes the owner, design professional, and constructor as signatories to the same construction contract.
The Japanese word for continuous improvement. Kaizen has come to mean the philosophy of continuous improvement.
The amount of output expected from a production unit or individual worker within a given time.
Look ahead planning
The portion of the last planner system that focuses on making work ready- assuring that work that should be done, can be done, by identifying and removing constraints in advance of need.
Look ahead window
The duration associated with look ahead planning. Typically look ahead windows extend form 3 to 12 weeks into the future, with six weeks preferred on most projects.
Japanese word for non value added or Ohno's 7 wastes.
Japanese word for unevenness or fluctuation in demand that causes the workflow to be uneven.
Japanese word for overburdening or excessive demand on a system that causes the system to produce beyond its reasonable capacity. Pushing a machine or person beyond natural limits. Overburdening people results in safety and quality problems. Overburdening equipment causes breakdowns and defects.
Network of commitments
The web of promises necessary to deliver any project. The role of management is to articulate the unique network of commitments required to deliver each project.
Stands for Plan Do Check Adjust. The cycle introduced by Walter A Shewhart and popularized by Dr. W. E. Deming as a method of continuous improvement.
Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as a PPE, is equipment worn to minimize exposure to serious workplace injuries and illnesses.
The extent to which a plan is an accurate forecast of future events, measured by PPC.
A continuous improvement discussion performed at the end of a meeting, project or event used to evaluate the session or activity. Two questions are asked and discussed.
Plus: What produced value during the session?
Delta: What could we change to improve the process or outcome?
A Japanese term for mistake proofing method or device developed by Shigeo Shingo that is used to prevent an error or defect from happening or being passed on to the next operation.
The extent to which a plan is an accurate forecast of future events, measured by PPC.
A flowchart identifying all the activities, operations, steps and work times for a process.
Assignment that meets quality criteria for release to the customer process. The quality criteria are: definition, soundness, sequence, size, and learning.
Reason for variance
Factors that prevented an assignment from being completed as promised, used by the team to promote learning concerning the failure of the planning system to produce predictable workflow. By assigning a category of variance to each uncompleted task, a team is able to identify those areas of recurring failure that require additional reflection and analysis.
A promise made by a performer only after self assuring that the promiser is competent or has access to the competence (skill and wherewithal), has estimated the amount of time the task will take, has blocked all time needed to perform, is freely committing and is not privately doubting ability to achieve the outcome and is prepared to accept any upset that may result from failure to deliver as promised.
A sequenced assignment should release work to another performer and in no case should it hinder another assignment or cause other crews to do additional work. Quality criterion for selecting assignments among those that are sound in priority order and in constructibility order.
Determining the status of tasks in the look ahead window relative to their constraints and choosing to advance or retard tasks based on their constraint status and the probability of removing constraints.
Preventing the release of work to production units because it does not meet quality criteria; the work is not a quality assignment. It is akin to stopping the assembly line rather than advancing a defective product. The purpose of shielding is to reduce uncertainty and variation, thereby providing production units with greater opportunity to be reliable.
Should Can Will Did
To be effective, management systems must tell us what we should do and what we can do, so that we can decide what we will do, then compare with what we did to improve our planning.
Quality criterion for assignments whereby the amount of work included in an assignment is made to match the capacity of the production unit that will do the work. The performer should have a very reasonable expectation that the assignment can be completed by the number of people available to do the job.
Quality criterion for assignments that tests whether or not assignments have had all constraints removed. The performer of an assignment should know that the materials, tools, staff and information to complete an assignment are available before accepting it.
The cost goal established by the delivery team as the target for its design and delivery efforts. The target cost should be set at less than best in class performance. The goal is to create a sense of necessity to drive innovation and waste reduction into the design and construction process.
Target value delivery
A disciplined management practice to be used throughout the project to assure that the facility meets the operational needs and values of the users, is delivered within the allowable budget, and promotes innovation throughout the process to increase value and eliminate waste (time, money, human effort).
Target value design
Encompasses the target value delivery approaches implemented during the design delivery phases of the project.
Target value production
Encompasses the target value delivery approaches implemented during the construction delivery phases of the project.
An identifiable chunk of work
The rate of the productions process.
Making assignments to a production unit, or a resource within a production unit, that absorbs less than 100% of its capacity. Under loading is necessary to accommodate variation in processing time or production rate, in order to assure plan reliability. Under loading is also done to release time for workers to take part in training or learning, conducting first run studies, implementing process improvements, or for equipment to be maintained.
The percentage of a resources capacity that is used in actual production
What the customer wants from the process. The customer defines value.
The sequence of activities required to design, produce and deliver a good or service to a customer, and it includes the dual flows of information and material.
Value stream mapping
A team based methodology for analyzing the current state and designing a future state for a series of events that take a product or service from its beginning through to the customer.
When an assignment is not completed as stated, it is considered a variance from the weekly work plan.
Placing tools, parts, production activities, plans, schedules, measures and performance indicators in plain view. This assures that the status of the system can be understood at a glance by everyone involved and actions taken locally in support of system objectives.
Designing the production system to determines who does what, when, where, and how, usually by breaking work into pieces, where pieces will likely be different from one production unit to the next. The purpose of work strutting is to promote flow and optimize system throughput by focusing on handoffs and opportunities for moving smaller batches of work through the production system.