56 terms

Social Studies - Middle East - Harris-Crow

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What is the Middle East?
Region between Europe and Asia
The Middle East stands at a crossroads between...
Africa, Asia, and Europe
Strategic Location
Commands vital sea routes and oil
5 Major regions of the Middle East?
Norther Tier
Arabian peninsula
fertile crescent
nile valley
mahgreb
whats one thing about the northern tier
stretches across turkey and iran
whats one thing about the arabian peninsula
vast plateau
whats one thing about the fertile crescent
arc shaped region
whats one thing about the nile valley
cradle of ancient civilization
whats one thing about maghreb
sarah and atlas mountains
what is the most valuable resource in the middle east
oil
how is oil distributed
unevenly
What is an Arab
speaks arabic and practices islam
islam
majority of Middle East practices it
shiite muslims
only descendants of muhammad can be prophet
sunni muslim
any devout muslim can be prophet
The main religions of the middle east are...
Jews, Christians, Mulslims
Sumerians
Developed a system of writing, used wheel, invented the sail, plow and calender.
Babylonians
conquered much of the fertile crescent
Hamurabi's Code
Distinguished between major and minor crimes
Made punishement fit crime
Hittites
best known for mastery of iron fertile crescent
phoenicans
carriers of civilization
the persian empire
allowed diversity
Alexander of Macedonia
defeated persian empire
rise to islam
submission
muhammad
born in 570 a.d.
he was prophet
he was forced to leave mecca for offering monotheism
he went to medina
he came back and took over mecca
he smasehd all idols in kaaba
allah is
god
muhammad is
prophet
first pillar
proclaim belief in one god
second pillar
prayer five times a day
third pillar
charity to the poor
fourth pillar
fasting during the month of ramadan
fith pillar
hajj-pilgrimage to mecca once in your life
Mosque
center of muslim life, church
marriages - arranged
a man could marry any lady but women can only marry a muslim man

a man can have 4 wives if he can support them equally

woumen and subordinate to men

homes had a place of seclusion for woem

muslims believed women are more likely to bring dishonor to family
absolute monarchy
king has power
constitutional
monarchy
Founding of Isreal
Brithish owned palestine. Arabs and Jews were fighting over it. Arabs had a bigger population and jews had a smaller population. Jews called on zionism which raised their population. WW11 ended and british gave land to UN. UN splits land 1/2 jews 1/2 arabs. Jews (happy) Arabs (mad) Jews call their land isreal. Arabs declare war. Jews win and push arabs over to the gaza strip making isreal bigger.
Conflict in Lebanon
French left lebanon leaving power with the bigger population of christians. over time the population changed. Muslims now have a bigger population. Muslims call a civil war and christians give up and give the muslims power.
islam fundamentalist
they use religion as an excuse for violence
the shah of iran
tried to lead iran to modernize. Friendly with the USA. flees in 1979
The ayatollah khomeini
terrorist. Hated USA
theocracy
nation ruled by religious leaders
iran hostage crisis of 1979
mob of iran students entered the us embassy in iran and took 66 americans hostage. The number went to 52 because they let women and african americans go. eagle claw was created top secret to save them. iran is alert and splits the hostages up. hostages released 444 days after being taken.
iran - iraq war
khomeini vs hussein
long standing tensions between those two
hussein invades iran
usa-ussr on side of iraq
un ceasefire - nobody wins
Gulf war - 1991
august 1990. Hussein invades kuwait and appears to threaten saudi arabia. international crisis
UN mad at hussein and imposed trade embargo
with un support, un assembled a coalition of american - arab (big deal) forces against iraq
operation desert shield
watching situation
given deadline of november 29 to leave kuwiat
january 1991
shiled erupts into operation desert storm
air war
then ground war
then iraqi forces surrendered.
by 1991 collapse of soviet union and end of gult war- USA only superpower!
osama bin laden
saud dissident
fought against soviets in afghanistan
extreme wealth
islamic extermist
leader of alQaeda
called for holy ar against jews /americans
taliban
were afghanistans ruling party enforcing strict islamic social code
aim= set up pure islamic state banning tv ect no education for femails
operation eduring freedom
changed from infinite justice out of respect to muslims
war in response to 9-11-2001
operation nobel eagle
defense of our homeland (tom ridge)
october 7, 2001
bombing of afghanistan as a result of 9-11-01 by the USA
operation iraqi freedom
war objecteives
defend usa against weapons of mass destruction
liberate iraquis
end regie of hussein
judaism
most ancient
isreal,hebrews,jews
motheism
god is yahweh
tora-outlined standards for everyday life
palestine-homeland for the jews
muslim
arab,palestine,islam
1/5 of the world is muslim
strict
muhammad-prophet of god
montheism
god is allah
five pillars
koran-holy book
palestine
Christianity
jesus-messiah
ten commandments
bible
monotheism