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9th Grade Jumpstart Math
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (40)
terminating decimal
A decimal number that ends or terminates
repeating decimal
A decimal that repeats a digit or group of digits forever
opposites
____________ are two number that are the same distance from 0 on a number line but they lie in opposite directions.
origin
(0,0)
inverse operations
One quality goes up while the other goes down. The more you shop, the less money you have
proportional relationship
two quantities increase at the same rate. The more you work, the more money you have
absolute value
The distance a number is from zero on a number line. ALWAYS POSITIVE. Ignore the sign
rational number
a number that can be expressed as a ratio (fraction) of two integers - terminating and repeating decimals are considered rational
irrational number
a number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers or as a repeating or terminating decimal
inequalities
Algebraic statements that have ≠, <, >, ≤, or ≥ as their symbols of comparison.
equivalent fractions
Fractions that have the same value
round
truncate. For example, ________ the number 231 to the nearest 100
ratios
a comparison of two quantities using division
slope
The ratio of the rise and the run between any two points in a line. Steepness of a line
associative property
(a+b)+c=a+(b+c)
commutative property
The property that says that two or more numbers can be added or multiplied in any order without changing the result
distributive property
a(b + c) = ab + ac
order of operations
PEMDAS- A rule for evaluating expressions: first perform the operations in parentheses, then compute powers, then perform all multiplication and division from left to right, and then perform all addition and subtraction from left to right.
diameter
A chord that passes through the center of the circle
pi
The ratio of the circumference divided by the diameter
circumference
The distance around a circle
area of a circle
A=πr²
sector
The part of a circle that looks like a piece of pie. A sector is bounded by 2 radii and an arc of the circle.
volume of a cylinder
V= πr²h
surface area of a cylinder
2πrh+2πr²
similar shapes
Figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size are similar.
scale factors
Comparing the lengths of corresponding sides of similar figures
translation
A transformation that "slides" each point of a figure the same distance in the same direction.
reflection
A transformation that "flips" a figure over a mirror or reflection line.
mean
average of the scores - add them up and divide by total number of scores
median
The middle number in a set of numbers that are listed in order
range
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
pie chart
Chart that shows the relationship of a part to a whole
sample space
The set of all possible outcomes
probability
A number from 0 to 1 that measures the likelihood that an event will occur
percent
A ratio that compares a number to 100
relative frequency
the fraction or percent of the time that an event occurs in an experiment
lateral surface area
Sum of the surface areas of all the faces of a space figure except the bases
metric units
You can convert between the smaller and larger of these by simply moving the decimal point.
customary units
The measurement system often used in the US
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