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The Pulmonary circulation is driven by which side of the heart?


What is the function of the Pulmonary circulation?

to deliver blood to the lungs for oxygenation

The Systematic Circulation is driven by which side of the heart?


What is the function of the Systematic Circulation?

to move oxygenated blood throughout the body

What is the function of the Lymphatic Vessels?

collect fluid from the interstitium and return the fluids to the circulatory system

The heart wall which encloses it and divides it into 2 chambers, is made up of what 3 layers?

Pericardium (outside), myocardium (muscular), and the endocardium (inner lining)

The Myocardial layer of the 2 atria, ________ the blood entering the heart and is ________ than the myocardial layer of the _______.

receives, thinner, ventricles, which must be stronger to force the blood out of the heart.

T/F: The heart valves ensure the one-way flow of blood from the atrium to the ventricle and from ventricle to artery


The pumping action, or Cardiac Cycle, of the heart consists of what two phases?

Diastole, during which the myocardium relaxes and the chamber fills with blood. Systole, during which the myocardium contracts, forcing blood out of the ventricles, making up one heartbeat

The ____ system of the heart generates and transmits electrical impulses, Cardiac action potentials, that stimulate ____ contractions.

Conduction, systolic

The _____ nerves can adjust the heart rate and systolic force, but do not stimulate the heat beat.

autonomic: sympathetic and parasympathetic

Hear rate is determined by the ____ and the components of the ___.

SA node, autonomic nervous system

What do the autonomic nervous system of the heart include?

cardiovascular control centers in the brain, neuroreceptors in the atria and aorta, hormones, and catecholamines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Vessel walls consists of what 3 layers?

the tunica intima (inner), tunica media (middle), tunica externa (outer)

blood flow through the veins is assisted by the contractions of what?

skeletal muscles

Back-flow of blood in the lower body is prevented by what?

one-way valves, particularly in the deep veins of the legs

Blood-flow is affected by what 5 things?

blood pressure; resistance to flow within vessels; blood consistency (affecting velocity); anatomic features that may cause turbulent or laminar flow; and compliance (distensibility) of the vessels

Arterial blood pressure is influenced and regulated by factors that affect...

cardiac output (heart rate and stroke volume), total resistance within the system, and blood volume

What hormones alter vasomotion?

epinephrine, norepinephrine, antidiuretic hormone, rein-angiotensin system, natriuretic peptides adrenomedullin, and insulin

T/F: The vessels of the lymphatic system do NOT run in the same sheaths in which the arteries and veins run

False: they run in same sheaths

____ is absorbed by lymphatic venules in the capillary beds and travel through even larger lymphatic veins.

Lymph, or interstitial fluid

Lymph runs through large lymphatic veins until it is emptied through the right or left thoracic duct and into the right or left ___.

subclavian vein

The lymph nodes are sites of what?

immune function

As the lymph travels towards the thoracic ducts, it is filtered by thousands of ___ clustered around lymphatic veins.

lymph nodes

In the evaluation of a known or suspected individual with cardiovascular disease must include a careful history and physical examination including...

assessment of risk factors, symptoms, vital signs, level of consciousness, mucous membrane color, and cardiopulmonary functioning

What are tests for cardiac disorders?

ECG and Holter monitoring, which detect disturbances of impulse generation or conduction

What elicits clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease that might NOT be present at rest?

Stress Tests

What tests detects structural and functional cardiac abnormalities over time?


Is used to measure oxygen content and pressure of blood in the heart's chambers and to inject contrast media for x-ray of the size and shape of the chambers

Cardiac Catheterization

Injection of contrast medium into coronary arteries permits visualization of coronary circulation

Coronary angiography

Evaluation of the systematic vascular system can include...

pulse tracings, Doppler ultrasonography, venography, and arteriography

The most relevant age-associated changes in cardiovascular performance are...

myocardial and vessel stiffening, changes in neurogenic control over vascular tone, and left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis

T/F: with active risk reduction and disease management, older individuals can have improved cardiovascular health


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