Biology 101 Lab 8
Terms in this set (52)
prokaryotes; meaning no membrane bound nucleus
cause infectious agents that cause disease. Infectious bacteria are able to invade and multiply within the host.
Structure of Bacterium
Bacterium has DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, cell wall, capsule (slime layer), cytoplasm, pilus, and bacterial flagellum.
a gel-like coating outside the cell wall. They often allow bacteria to stick to surfaces such as teeth. They also prevent phagocytic white cells from taking them up and destroying them.
hairlike bristles that allow adhesion to surfaces. This can be how a bacterium clings to and gains access to the body prior to infection.
elongated, hollow appendage used to transfer DNA to other cells. Genes that allow bacteria to be resistant to antibotics can be passed in this manner.
a rotating filament that pushes the cell forward.
a structure that provides support and shapes the cell. Antibiotics that prevent the formation of a cell wall are most effective against Gram-positive rather than Gram-negative.
a sheet that surrounds the cytoplasm and regulates entrance and exit of molecules. Resistance to antibiotics can be due to plasma membrane alterations that so not allow the drug to bind to the membrane or cross the membrane, or to a plasma membrane that increases the elimination of the drug from the bacteria.
site of protein synthesis. Some bacteria posses antibiotic-inactivating enzymes that make them resistant to antibiotics.
the location of the bacterial chromosome.
some bacteria contain Plasmids, small rings of DNA that replicate independently of the chromosomes and can be passed to other bacteria. GENES THAT ALLOW BACTERIA TO BE RESISTANT TO ANTIBIOTICS ARE OFTEN LOCATED IN THE PLASMID.
Which portion of the bacterial cell aid the ability of a bacterium to cause infections?
Which portions of a bacterial cell aid the ability of bacterium to be resistant to antibiotics?
The conjugation pilus ; it aids the bacterium to gain pieces of DNA or palsmid from another bacteria & become resistant to antibiotics.
A colony is a group of cells. Cells of the same organism exhibit the same type of colony growth.
The 3 Shapes of Bacterial Cells (Bacterial Morphology)
1) Spirillum (spiral or helical)
2) Bacillus (rod) Bacilli; may form long filaments
3) Coccus (round or spherical) cocci; may form clusters or chains.
What is a endospore, and why does it have a survival value?
An endospore contains a copy of the genetic material encased by heavy protective spore coats. Spores survive unfavorable conditions and germinate to form vegetative cells when conditions improve.
What is another name for Cyanobacteria & what kingdom & domain does it belong too?
Blue-Green Algae; Kingdom Monera & Domain Bacteria They do not have chloroplasts, they do have thylakoid membranes, where photosynthesis occurs.
What two cyanobacteria have we studied in lab?
Oscillatoria and Anabaena
Oscillatoria is a filamentous cyanobacterium with individual cells that resemble a stack of pennies;
Anabaena is a filamentous cyanobacterium with individual cells that are barrel-shaped (a live culture is grey/clear);
Photosynthetic Protists "algae" (4)
Green algae; lives in fresh water, red algae; chiefly live in warm seawater, brown algae; seaweed, chiefly in cold seawater and are large, & golden-brown algae; diatoms, two sections fitting inside each other. the walls are impregnated with silica and are said to live in glass houses, they live in both fresh and salt water. Protist where the first eukaryotes to evolve. Algae is a term for h2o organisms that photosynthesize. All photosynthetic protists contain green chlorophyll, but they may also contain other pigments that mask the color thus their names.
The 3 domains
bacteria and archae (prokaryotes)
Eukarya domain (Eukaryotes)
What domains are bacteria grouped in?
Domain Bacteria & Archea (ancient Bacteria
List the 5 kingdoms
Monera, Protist (protists), Myceteae (Fungi), plantae (Plant),animmalia (Animal)
What role do bacteria and fungi play in ecosystems?
What is Agar?
Is a gelatinous substance derived from red algae,most people are familiar with it as the culture medium in petri dishes. Because the substance is not protein-based, it is not as readily digested by bacteria. When scientists are trying to grow a culture, this is the growth medium of choice, since it will not turn into a cloudy bacterial soup like animal derived gelatins can. The agar can be enriched with nutrients for the bacteria to feed on, but will itself remain stable. This substance is also perfectly edible.
What type of nutrition do alga have?
Light & CO2
Is a colonial green alga. It is motile ( Due to the thousands of cells that make up the colony have flagella). It is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction.The adult Volvox colony often contains daughter colonies, asexually produced by special cells, which escape the parent by releasing an enzyme. With sexual reproduction some colonies produce sperm while others produce eggs, resulting in a zygote which undregoes meiosis and the adult is now a haploid.
Is a filamentous green alga, in which each cell has a ribbon like chloroplast.They contain pyrenoids, centers of starch polymerization. During conjugation, the cell contents of one filament enter the cells of another filament. Zygote formation follows.
Define the gametophye cycle of plant life
gametophyte producting phase of the life cycle: diploid; two gametes fuse to form a zygote that developes into a new plant
Define the sporophyte cycle of plant life
spore producing, haploid; spores are released and land to create new plants
What is the importance of plants
food supply, medicine, oxygen, fossil fuel, industrial products, and aesthetic benefits
a reproduction process that involves a fusion of sex cells
a sex cell
male sex cell
female sex cell
the fusion of sex cells
the cell produced by the fusion of a sperma and egg (fertilized)
does not involve a fusion of sex cells
a reproductive cell that can grow into a new organism without fusing with another cell
a structure that produces spores
life cycle of fern
First a leafy fern plant produce spores on the undersides of their fronds. Spores landing in moist shady soil are most likely to grow. The spores will than grow into a heart shaped plant. These plants produce male and female sex cell. If the male sex cell fertilizes the female sex cell the fertilized egg becomes a new plant. The new fern plant produces spores and repeats the cycle.
classification of the plant kingdom
red algae, brown algae, green algae, mosses and liverworts, true ferns, horsetails, clubmosses, conifers, flowering plants
What is the habitat of the plant kingdom
terrestrial vs. aquatic
Plants have what kind of sex organs
unicellular and multicellular
Some plants have vasular tissue true or false
depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
protective outer layer of seeds of flowering plants
An organism in the earliest stage of development
What are the major groups of plants
algae( red, green and brown), bryophytes (mosses and liverworts), ferns, gynosperms (cycadophyta, ginkophyta, coniferophyta), and flowering plants
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