Specific powers granted by the Constitution to the president in Article II. Ex: President is commander-in-chief of armed forces.
Powers that are not specifically expressed but are implied through an expansive interpretation of expressed and delegated powers. Ex: Order airstrikes against a foreign nation.
Powers that are assigned to one government agency but that are exercised by another agency with permission. Ex: Congress delegates power to the EPA to improve air and water quality, and the President issues executive orders to the EPA to do so.
Powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the Constitution but are inferred from it. Ex: Decision during a national security crisis to suspend habeas corpus, blockade ports, or censor the press.
The role of the president as commander-in-chief of the national military and the state National Guard units.
The claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president.
United States v. Nixon (1974)
Supreme Court decision that recognized the legal validity of executive privilege, but ruled that it did not apply in the particular instance of President Nixon seeking withhold tape recordings from Congress that may prove his complicity in illegal activities.
The president's inherent power to bring a legislative agenda before Congress.
State of the Union Address
Annual speech presented by the President to a joint session of Congress in which the President reflects on the previous year's accomplishments and the agenda that should be pursued moving forward.
A platform from which to advocate an agenda. Term coined by Theodore Roosevelt to describe the presidency.
A rule or regulation issued by the president as chief executive to a federal agency that has the effect and formal status of law. Can be reversed by future president.
An agreement, made between the president and another country, that has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senate's ratification. Can be reversed by future president.
Announcements made by the president when signing bills into law, often presenting the president's interpretation of the law. Signing statements are used to exercise executive discretion over how to execute the law.
War Powers Resolution (1973)
A resolution of Congress that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of Congress or if American troops are already under attack. An attempt to reign in the rise of an "imperial presidency" under Johnson and Nixon during the Vietnam War.
USA Patriot Act (2001)
Legislation expanding the power of government agencies to engage in domestic surveillance activities.
The secretaries (leaders) of the major departments of the executive branch. Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president with the consent of the Senate.
An informal group of advisers to whom the president turns for counsel and guidance.
National Security Council (NSC)
A presidential foreign policy advisory council composed of the president, vice president, secretary of state, secretary of defense, and other officials.
White House staff
Analysts and advisers to the president, each of whom is often given the title "special assistant." Ex: Chief of Staff, Press Secretary.
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
The agencies that perform management tasks for the president; including Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), etc.
Formally limits the president to two terms.
Essay written by Alexander Hamilton in favor of a unitary (single) executive to enable the president to defend against legislative encroachments with energy and to ensure safety with efficient decision-making.
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