Mastering A&P Chapter 27
Terms in this set (43)
Homeostatic mechanisms that monitor and adjust the composition of body fluids respond to changes in the ________ fluid.
About two-thirds of the body's fluid is within cells and is termed ________ fluid.
Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found only within
the cells of the body.
Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called
Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?
In an adult female, the body consists of about ________ percent water.
All of the following are components of ECF except
The extracellular fluid (ECF) consists of the
In a lean adult male, the body consists of about ________ percent water.
The principal cation in intracellular fluid is
Which of the following will stimulate thirst?
-angiotensin II acting on the hypothalamus
-an increase in the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus
-drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx
-stimulation of osmoreceptors
Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion?
Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?
Which hormone(s) is (are) released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?
Approximately ________ liters of peritoneal fluid are produced and reabsorbed each day.
The release of atrial naturetic peptides from the heart will cause the body to
decrease ECF and excrete sodium ions.
Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by
-causing the release of ADH.
-stimulating the kidneys to conserve sodium.
-triggering the production and secretion of aldosterone.
The principal ions in extracellular fluid are sodium, chloride, and
When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained,
osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF.
When pure water is consumed,
osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall.
Consuming a meal high in salt will
result in a temporary increase in blood volume.
is produced by the hypothalamus.
stimulates water conservation by the kidneys.
stimulates water intake.
is released from the posterior pituitary gland.
Exchange between the two main subdivisions of ECF occurs primarily at the
To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties must this substance lack in order to be effective?
permeable to brain plasma membranes
A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called a(n)
Excess hydrogen ion is eliminated from the body largely by
The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to
limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids
A ________ consists of a combination of a weak acid and its associated anion.
A(n) ________ acid is an acid that can leave solution and enter the atmosphere.
A(n) ________ acid is an acid that cannot leave solution and enter the atmosphere.
The normal pH range for ECF is
7.35 to 7.45.
When the pH ________, a state of acidosis exists.
falls below 7.35
Which class of acid will have an increased concentration in someone who is suffocating?
Hypoventilation leads to
Prolonged vomiting can result in
A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of
chronic respiratory acidosis
A person with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus will develop
A patient that is hyperventilating is at risk for
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder metabolic alkalosis?
consequence of prolonged vomiting
A person who consumes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to settle an upset stomach risks
Severe kidney damage, such as glomerulonephritis, often leads to
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory acidosis?
consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation (for example, due to emphysema)
Hypercapnia refers to elevated levels of
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Pearson Mastering A&P Chapter 27 - Figure 27.16a
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chapter 27- mastering