85 terms

Topic 1: Populations in Transition

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exponential growth
an increasing or accelerating rate of growth (doubles each generation)
annual growth rate
found by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate - expressed as a percentage
crude birth rate (CBR)
the number of births per 1,000 people in a population
general fertility rate (GFR)
the number of births per 1,000 women aged 15-49 years
age-specific birth rate (ASBR)
the number of births per 1,000 women of any specified year groups
standardised birth rate (SBR)
a birth rate for a region on the basis that its age composition is the same as for the whole country
total fertility rate (TFR)
the average number of births per 1,000 women of childbearing age
infant mortality rate (IMR)
the number of deaths of children less than one year old per 1000 live births
child mortality rate
the number of deaths in children under the age of 5 per 1000 children
crude dead rate (CDR)
the number of deaths per 1000 people in a population
Why are some rates 'crude'?
They do not take all factors into account - age structure etc.
life expectancy (E o )
average number of years that a person can be expected to live, usually from birth, if demographic factors remain unchanged
population structure or population composition
any measurable characteristic of the population. This includes the age, sex, ethnicity, language, religion and occupation of the population
older dependency ratio (ODR)
the number of people aged 65 and over for every 100 people aged 20 to 64
family planning
attempts to limit family size
migration
the movement of people, involving a change of residence. It can be internal or external (international) and voluntary or forced. It is usually for an extended period (more than a year) and does not include temporary circulations such as commuting or tourism
remittances
transfer of money or goods by foreign workers to their home countries
OECD
Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development, largely composed of developed countries
refugee
a person fleeing their home country in order to escape danger
asylum seekers
people who seek refugee status in another country
illegal immigrants
people who enter another country without permission and plan to remain there
economic migrant
a person seeking job opportunities
internally displaced persons (IDPs)
those who have fled their homes but continue to live in their own countries
tenure
the way in which the rights, restrictions and responsibilities that people have with respect to land (and property) are held
population projections
predictions about future population based on trends in fertility, mortality and migration
population momentum
"the tendency of a population to to grow despite a fall or rise in birth rates/fertility levels
(growth/decline despite other factors)"
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standard of living
natural resources x technology / population
diffusion
the spread of a phenomenon over time and space
carrying capacity
the largest population that the resources of a given environment can support.
demography
the scientific study of human populations
demographic transition
the historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a populations.
census
an official periodic count of a population including such information as age, gender, occupation and ethnic origin
natural decrease
when the numbers of births is lower than the number of deaths
immigration
the migration of people into a country from one or a number of other countries. (in)
emigration
the migration of people from a country to one or a number of other countries. (out) Â Â
net migration
the difference between immigration and emigration for a particular country
replacement level fertility
the level at which each generation has just enough children to replace themselves in the population. Although the level varies for different populations, a total fertility rate of 2.12 children is usually considered as replacement level
population structure
the composition of a population, the most important elements of which are age and sex
sex ratio
the number of males per 100 females in a population
anti-natalist policy
A population policy set to reduce the number of children
birth interval
time between births of one woman (approx 1.5 - 3.5 years)
contraception
the deliberate prevention of pregnancy, can be achieved in a number of ways
commuter
a person who travels between home and work
counter-urbanisation
Is a demographic and social process whereby people move away from urban areas to rural areas. It first took place as a reaction to inner-city deprivation and overcrowding.
densely populated
> 100 people/ km<sup>2</sup>
doubling time
"The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
(N = 70/growth rate %)"
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dependency ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force
dowries
the gift/money that the brides family would give to the groom in order for marriage
gravity model of migration
a model in urban geography derived from Newton's law of gravity , and used to predict the degree of interaction between two places
demographic transition model (DTM)
the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system
economically active
the portion of a population between the ages of 15 and 64 (inclusive) who earn their own income and help support the dependents.
emancipation
the fact or process of being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions; liberation
equality
the state of being equal, especially in status, rights, or opportunities
ethnic group
group set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
female genital mutilation (FGM)
the practice, traditional in some cultures, of partially or totally removing the external genitalia of girls and young women for non-medical reasons. It is illegal in many countries
forced marriage
a marriage in which one or both of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
guest worker
a foreign laborer working temporarily in an industrialized usually European country
internally displaced person (IDP)
someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders. They are often referred to as refugees, although they do not fall within the current legal definition of a refugee.
incentives
a thing that motivates or encourages someone to do something,
informal settlement
areas where groups of housing units have been constructed on land that the occupants have no legal claim to, or occupy illegally; and unplanned settlements and areas where housing is not in compliance with current planning and building regulations (unauthorized housing).
intervening obstacles
an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Lee's Migration Model
the location that they move from and the place they move to and the location of the intervening obstacle have both push, pull, and indifferent factors
marginal land
Arid and generally unhospitable land. It usually has little or no potential for profit, and often has poor soil or other undesirable characteristics. This land is often located at the edge of deserts or other desolate areas.
migration balance
Net migration rate is the difference of immigrants and emigrants of an area in a period of time, divided (usually) per 1,000 inhabitants (considered on midterm population). A positive value represents more people entering the country than leaving it, while a negative value means more people leaving than entering it.
optimum population
refers to the size of a population that produces the best results according to chosen end targets - the largest per capital income of consumers' goods possible under the given conditions
pensions
a regular payment made by the state to people of or above the official retirement age and to some widows and disabled people
population distribution
the pattern of where people live. World population distribution is uneven. Places which are sparsely populated contain few people. Places which are densely populated contain many people. Sparsely populated places tend to be difficult places to live.
Pro-Natalist Policy
policies in countries facing demographic decline (growth below replacement rate) in order to increase population growth.
push factor
A push factor is forceful, and a factor which relates to the country from which a person migrates. It is generally some problem which results in people wanting to migrate.
pull factor
favorable conditions or attributes of a place that encourage migration
replacement rate
The number of births per woman that would be required to maintain a nation's (or the world's) population with no increases or decreases. The current replacement rate is considered to be about 2.1 births per woman.
seasonal migration
movement of people based on seasonal demand for labor
step migration
a migration in which an eventful long distance relocation is undertaken in stages as for example, from farm to village to small town, to city (hierarchy of locations)
taliban
a Muslim fundamentalist group in Afghanistan that took over Afg. after the war
underpopulation
having a population lower than is normal or desirable.
UNHCR
the UN agency mandated to ensure respect for the rights of people fleeing war and persecution and to find lasting solutions to their plight - United Nations High Commission on Refugees
UNIFEM
"U.N. development fund for women.
--strengthens women's economic rights, engenders governance and leadership, promote women's human rights and eliminate violence against women."
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a general term that refers to the movements of refugees and internally displaced people (those displaced by conflicts within their country of origin) as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects.
Development-induced displaced people
This category includes people who are compelled to move as a result of policies and projects implemented to ‘enhance’ development. People displaced in this way are sometimes also referred to as ‘oustees’, ‘involuntarily displaced’ or ‘involuntarily resettled’.
Environmental and disaster-induced displaced
‘environmental refugees’/‘disaster refugees’, most do not leave the borders of their homeland. It includes people displaced as a result of natural disasters, environmental change (deforestation, desertification, land degradation, global warming) and human-made disasters (industrial accidents, radioactivity).
smuggled people
Smuggled migrants are moved illegally for profit. Smuggled migrants may include those who have been forcibly displaced as well as those who have left their homeland in search of better economic and social opportunities.
trafficked people
Trafficked people are those who are moved by deception or coercion for the purposes of exploitation. The profit in trafficking people comes not from their movement, but from the sale of their sexual services or labor in the country of destination.Â