67 terms

Topic F: Food and Health

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infant mortality rate (IMR)
total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
chronic/acute
occurring over a long/short period of time
life expectancy (Eo)averageÂ
number of years that a person can be expected to live if demographic factors remain unchanged
access to safe water
access to water that is affordable, in sufficient quantity and available without excessive effort and time.
access to health services
usually measured in the number of people per doctor, health worker or hospital
YLDs
years lived with disability
DALYs (disability-adjusted life years)
the sum of years of potential life lost due to premature mortality and the years of productive life lost due to disability
calorie intake
the amount of food (measured in calories) per person per day
HALE (health adjusted life expectancy)
an indicator of the overall health of a population. It combines measures of both age- and sex-specific health data and mortality data into a single statistic. It indicates the number of expected years of life equivalent to years lived in full health, based on the average experience in a population.
epidemics
infectious or contagious diseases - occur when a higher than expected number of cases of an infectious disease occur with a given area.
chronic (or degenerative) diseases
maladies of longevity and old age - gradual worsening in health
Epidemiological Transition Model ( ETM)
"D: Shows distinctive causes of death in each stage of the Demographic Transition Model.
S: The Epidemiological Transition Model (ETM) can help determine if a country is well developed or less developed country. Less developed countries have more deaths due to famines and diseases where there are cures available."
epidemiological transition
shift from epidemics to degenerative diseases
examples of epidemics
AIDS and influenza
examples of degenerative diseases
artherosclerosis, heart disease, stroke and cancer
curative healthcare
curing symptoms after they have developed
preventative healthcare
trying to prevent illnesses from developing - prevention is a good way to reduce the burden of disease and improve the quality of life
malnutrition
a diet that is lacking (or has too much) in quality or quantity of foods
deficiency diseases
lack of specific vitamins or minerals
kwashiorkor
lack of protein in the diet
marasmus
lack of calories/energy in the diet
obesity
too much energy or protein foods
starvation
limited/non-existent intake of foods
temporary hunger
short-term decline in the availability of food to a population in an area
famine
a long-term decline in the availability of food in a region
food security (FAO)
Food security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
food security (USDA)
Food security for a household means access by all members at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. It includes at a minimum: (i) the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods , and (ii) an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways (that is, without resorting to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or coping strategies.
food availability deficit
implies that food deficiences were caused by local shortages due to physical factors (climate and its effect on food supplies, and on the problems of transport, storage and relief organisations)
food entitlement deficit
suggests that food shortages were caused by a lack of wages/income (rising costs of food relative to average incomes) - not just physical factors, but also people's access to food and their conditions which cause that access to alter
The Green Revolution
The successful recent development of higher-yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries.
trading blocs
groups of countries with formalized systems of trading agreements (NAFTA).
farm subsidies
Payments by governments to their farmers to underwrite the costs of production
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
An EU policy based on the principle that a subsidy extended to farmers in any member country should be extended to farmers in all member countries
free trade
allows a country to trade competitively with another country. There are no restrictions regarding what can be exported and imported.Â
protectionism
creates restrictions to trade. It creates barriers to imports as well as to exports.
comparative advantage
ability or a country or company to produce a particular good more efficiently than another country or companyÂ
advantages of free trade
* allows countries to specialise and concentrate on their comparative advantages
* allows countries to obtain goods and services more cheaply than if they had to produce them themselves
* allows countries to obtain goods year-round
* increases consumption, promotes efficiency and reduces waste"
trade barriers
government-imposed regulations that increase the cost and restrict the number of imported goods
multilateral arrangements
occur when a number of countries (such as those in the EU) agree to import goods from a number of other countries
bilateral agreements
when one consumer enters an agreement with one producer
trade liberalisation
reduction of trade barriers (opens up worldwide markets)
export bans
drive drive prices even higher and increase market variability
food aid
food donated by a foreign government or charitable organization to people in need, usually in developing countries.Â
gross photosynthetic efficiency
the ratio of gross primary productivity to the total incoming solar radiation
energy efficiency ratios (EER)
measure of the amount of energy inputs into a system compared with the outputs. In a traditional agroforestry system, the inputs are very low.
sustainable yield
the amount of food (yield) that can be taken from the land without reducing the ability of the land to produce the same amount of good in the future, without any additional inputs.
food miles
the distance that food travels from where it is produced to where it is consumed - indicates the environmental impact of the food we eat
emerging infectious diseases
diseases that are new increasing in incidence or showing a potential to increase in near future
examples of infectious or parasitic diseases
diarrhoea and dysentery, pneumonia and respiratory infections, tuberculosis, malaria and measles - rich countries are almost immune from these
disease diffusion
the spread of disease into new locations. It occurs when incidences of a disease spread out from an intitial source
frictional effect of distance/distance decay
the effect of distance on cultural or spatial interaction - suggests that areas that are closer to the source are more likely to be affected by it, whereas areas further away from the source are less likely to be affected (or become affected at a later date)Â
diffusion of disease stages and curve shape
"S-shaped curve with four stages:1. Infusion (25th percentile) 2. Inflection (50th percentile) 3. Saturation (75th percentile) 4. Waning to the upper limits"
expansion diffusion
occurs when the expanding disease has a source and diffuses outwards into new areas
relocation diffusion
occurs when the spreading disease moves into new areas, leaving behind its origin or source, e.g. a person infected with HIV moving into a new location
contagious diffusion
the spread of an infectious disease through the direct contact of individuals with those infected
hierarchal diffusion
occurs when a phenomenon spreads through an ordered sequence of classes or places, e.g. from cities to large urban areas to small urban areas
network diffusion
occurs when a disease spreads via transportation and social networks e.g. the spread of HIV in southern Africa along transport routes
mixed diffusion
combination of contagious diffusion and hierarchal diffusion
DDT
"insecticide prepared in 1873 effective against malaria carrying mosquitos -- stopped malaria in the US overuse of insecticides leads to resistance. Fat soluble.
degradation
depletion of vegetation, loss of biodiversity, soil and water
land reform
the redistributor of land to individual farmers giving them the inculters to invest and make the land more productive
energy subsidies
of energy not directly received from the sun e.g. fossil fuels
vectors
transmitters such as insects
diseases of poverty
infectious or communicable diseases. They spread rapidly in the overcrowded and insanitary conditions associated with poverty.
diseases of affluence
non-communicable, chronic diseases - they are degenerative (associated with old age)
pandemic risk index
"takes into account: the risk of a particular disease emerging in a country the risk of disease spreading to and within one country * the capacity of a country to contain the disease"
Swine Flu
* H1N1
* primarily pig flu
* started in mexico
* impact on travel
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