Which of the following are possible reasons vitamin D deficiencies have reemerged as a global Health concern?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 249
Terms in this set (249)
Rickets is a deficiency disease caused by the lack of which vitamin?DThe vitamin E content of a food may be affected by...Exposure to sunlight, deep fat frying, exposure to oxygen.A severe vitamin A deficiency can lead to xeropthalmia which results in...blindnessThe recommendation is that pregnant women should not exceed 100% of the daily value for?Preformed vitamin ARisk factors associated with osteomalacia include...Kidney disease and poor intestinal absorptionInfants are given an injection of vitamin K at Birth because...Their intestines lack enough bacteria to produce vitamin KA vitamin can be described as what when it is thought to be responsible for reducing the risk of cancer by destroying free radicals?AntioxidantWhich vitamin functions as a hormone in maintaining the body's concentration of calcium and phosphorus?dWhich three groups of people are at risk for vitamin E deficiency?Crohn's disease, preterm infants, smokersWhat is the adequate intake level of vitamin K for men?120 IU dailyWhich designation has benefits that include supplement products meeting establish standards for the strength quality Purity packaging labeling solubility and storage of all of their products?USPThe vitamin A deficiency that produces skin changes is referred to as :Follicular hyperkeratosisWhich foods are a good source of vitamin D?Milk and fishIf a person has dark skin, would they need shorter or longer amount of exposure time to sunlight in order to synthesize vitamin D?Longerwhich of the following are food sources of vitamin D?Fatty fish, fortified milk.Inadequate levels of vitamin K could lead to an increased or decreased risk of hip fractures?IncreasedWhich two vitamins when consumed in excessive amounts negatively affects the actions of vitamin K?Vitamin A and vitamin EFoods that are good sources of vitamin E include:plant oils, nuts, wheat germVitamin D is incorporated into what part of the small intestines before being absorbed?MicellesWhich individuals are at risk for developing a vitamin A deficiency?Older adults, impoverished individuals, and alcoholicsAs a person ages vitamin D synthesis does what?DecreasesWhat is the adequate intake (AI) level for vitamin D for individuals between the ages of 15 to 70?10 microgramsWhich of the following are possible benefits from eating foods rich in beta-carotene?Protects eye tissues, prevent free radical damage, decreases risk for certain cancers.A vitamin deficiency may occur when a vitamin has been lacking in the diet for several weeks and the...Body stores are depletedThe parathyroid gland helps with regulating the synthesis of vitamin D by producing the hormone...Parathyroid hormoneWanted vitamin deficiency is present the individual with the deficiency may experience a incline or decline in health?DeclineWhich two vitamins are most likely to have toxic effectsa and dWhat are dietary carotenoids attached to that must be split off by digestive enzymes prior to absorption?proteinsHypervitaminosis can lead to which of the following in pregnant women?Birth defects and spontaneous abortionWhat is the adequate intake level for vitamin D ?600IU/ 15 mg 800IU/20mgFoods that are good sources of vitamin E include?Plant oil nuts wheat germWhen a megadose of vitamin is given to a person, they are receiving what?Much more than neededWhich of the following are appropriate recommendations for vitamin and or mineral supplementation?Women of childbearing age should consume 400 micrograms per day of folic acid, people on calorie-restricted diets May benefit from the use of a balanced multivitamin and mineral supplementWhich form of vitamin E has the highest potency?naturalThe vitamin A content of a food depends on which of the following?Storage, processing, cooking, harvestingVitamin K and calcium work together to help blood do what?CoagulateMegadoses of vitamin E can interfere with vitamin ____ability to Aid in blood clotting.kHow do IUs or international units compared to Rae retinol activity equivalents?There is no easy way to convert IU to Rae for food that naturally contains pro-vitamin a carotenoids, IUs are less preciseWhat will occur when vitamin A deficiency progresses and leads to dry eye?XeropthalmiaStructure or function claims are not currently allowed on supplement labels. in these claims are not scientifically ______provenVitamin A is important for the production of mucus in which organs?Trachea, GI tract, skin, lungsWhat percentage of our vitamin D needs may be met by the exposure to sunlight?80%A person with darker skin may need sun exposure of how many minutes or more to obtain adequate amounts of vitamin D from the Sun?30The consumer is ultimately responsible for protecting them self when using dietary supplements because which Administration cannot regulate supplements as closely as it regulates drugs?FDASupplements with high amounts of zinc can interfere with which of the following fiber or copper?Copper (iron)_____ May inhibit oxidation of the lipoprotein LDL.beta caroteneIn chronic vitamin A toxicity who is affected by a wide range of signs and symptoms?infants and adultsIdentify the sources of vitamin K:Broccoli, green leafy vegetables, and canola oilThe best way to meet nutritional needs is to:eat a varied dietExcess vitamin A results in a condition called?Hypervitaminosis ARegarding vitamin A sources, ______ is found only in animal products where as _____is found in plant products.Retinol, carotenoidsThe vitamin E content of a food may be affected by?Exposure to oxygen deep fat frying and exposure to lightVitamin D is unique in that it has a site of synthesis that is different from the location of action, so it is considered to be a:diarrhea and measlesVitamin A supplements have been shown to reduce the severity of some illnesses infections such as:diarrhea and measlesThe carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been suggested to protect against which age-related eye condition?Macular degenerationWhich of the following are examples of food drug interactions?Large doses of vitamin A and D can result in toxicity, High intakes of folate can mask the symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiencyThe chemical name for the four forms of vitamin E is?tocopherolsIn developed countries what is the most commonly associated disease with fat malabsorption seen in children with cystic fibrosis?ricketsIf you have a lack of vitamin A, what will this affect?immune fxnWhat is the function of vitamin A?It includes the growth and development, cell differentiation, vision and immune functionsThe fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin responsible for protecting cell membranes by helping to stop damaged by free radicals is?Vitamin EWhich two vitamins when consumed in excessive amounts of negatively affect the actions of vitamin K?vit A &EWhich of the following is a possible function of beta-carotene?protect eye tissuesWhich designation includes the benefits that supplement products to meet established standards for the strength, quality, Purity, packaging, labeling, soluability and storage of all their products?USP60 mg of tryptophan will produce how many milligrams of niacin?1Pellegra, the deficiency disease from niacin is characterized by?Diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis.Vitamin B12 is found in which foods only?AnimalWhich of the following diets are associated with a condition known as pellagra?Corn-based dietsThe protein called avidin in raw egg whites binds to _____ a B vitamin and inhibit its absorptionbiotinFood sources of riboflavin include?Enriched grains milk and eggsWhich vitamin has foods of animal origin and it's only reliable food source and is the only vitamin that contains a mineral as part of its structure?Vitamin B12Which of the following accurately characterizes the water soluble vitamins?They function primarily in energy metabolism, the risk of toxicity is low, organicGrain products that have been milled are ____with B vitamins and the mineral iron to lessen the risk of deficiency.EnrichedNeural tube defects that result due to a lack of folate during pregnancy includes?Spina bifida and AnecephalyTrue or false, megadoses of vitamin C can be toxicfalseThe B vitamin that is sometimes prescribed by physicians to increase HDL cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels is called?NiacinGood sources of biotin include:eggs nuts legumesGood sources of biotin include: eggs nuts and legumesName the B vitamin that is required to be added to refined grain products with the aim of preventing neural tube defectsfolateThe American Heart Association has concluded that supplements of vitamin C can prevent heart disease? True or false?falseWhich B vitamin is important in DNA synthesis?folateName all of the B vitamins that are important to DNA synthesis:Biotin, thiamin, folic acid and folate are important in DNA synthesisThe deficiency diseases for vitamin B12 are called?Pernicious anemia, Megaloblastic anemiaBiotin functions as a ____for several carboxylase enzymes that add carbon dioxide to various compoundsCoenzymeCommon food sources for pantothenic acid include?Milk, broccoli, meat, mushrooms, peanuts, yeast, soy milkWhich category of vitamins needs to be replaced daily?water soluable vitaminsWhich groups of people are at risk for a vitamin B12 deficiency?People with a malabsorption syndrome, the elderly, and vegetariansWhich vitamin deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia?Vit B 12Person experiencing weakness, loss of appetite, poor coordination and edema caused from lack of thiamine is experiencing the deficiency disease known as:beriberiThe water soluble vitamin deficiency that may lead to decreased red blood cell synthesis and eventually megaloblastic anemia is due to the lack of which vitamin?folateBeta-carotene can be found in which of the following Foods?Yams, carrots, colored bell peppersThe RDA for vitamin E is how many milligrams of alpha tocopherol for both men and women?15 mg per dayVitamin K can be incorporated into the lipoprotein vldl in the liver for what?storageWhich of the following are possible reasons vitamin D deficiencies have re emerged as a global Health concern?...Clothing that fully covers the body, spending time indoors, the use of sunscreenWhat is the adequate intake level for vitamin D for individuals between the ages of 51 to 70?10 mcgAn individual with an enlarged head, joints, and rib cage, deformed pelvis and bowed legs is suffering from the vitamin deficiency known as?Vitamin D deficiency disease called ricketsWhich organ tightly regulates the synthesis of vitamin D3?kidneysHealth risks for low levels of vitamin D include an increase inosteomalacia, autoimmune disorders, rickets, cancer riskFat soluble vitamins are absorbed along with dietary ____?fatDark green and yellow orange vegetables are a good source of?CarotenoidsVitamin A has been known for over 3,500 years to prevent ______NightblindnessWhich vitamins when consumed in excessive amounts negatively affects the actions of vitamin K?vitamin A and EA vitamin can be described as a _____when it is thought to be responsible for reducing the risk of cancer by destroying radicals?AntioxidantWhen a vitamin is thought to be responsible for reducing the risk of cancer by destroying radicals it is called an...AntioxidantFor most vitamins the ________form or the isolated from food forms are: have the same health benefits as synthetic forms or the kind that are made in a laboratorynaturalVitamin K is carried to cells throughout the body by:HDL and LDLSmall amounts of vitamin A are found in the:bone marrow, adipose tissue, kidneysWhat pigment is responsible for the dark green and yellow orange coloring in vegetables? Chlorophyll what pigment is responsible for the dark green and yellow orange coloring in vegetables?chlorophyllExcessive intakes of vitamin A and which other vitamin negatively affect the actions of vitamin K?vit DWhat has helped with almost eradicating the epidemic of rickets during the 19th century?Cod liver oil, fortified milk with vitamin DWhich of the following are examples of food and drug interactions?High intakes of folate can mask the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, large doses of vitamin A and D can result in toxicity.Vitamins isolated from foods are classified as what?NaturalWhich of the following are possible benefits from eating foods rich in beta-carotene?Protects I tissues, prevents free radical damage, decreases risk for certain cancers.Night blindness was linked to vitamin A during what time frame?Ancient EgyptiansOver what percent of the body's vitamin A stores are found in the liver? 90%90%Which of the following is a possible function of beta-carotene?To protect I tissuesWhat is a good source of vitamin D?Milk and fishSupplements with high amounts of zinc can interfere with which of the following?Copper because it has iron in itAI for mangnese is...2.3 men 1.8 womenUL of manganese is:11 mg dayIodine is most abundant in...seaweedUl of iodine is...1100 mcgwhere is iodine found?thyroid glandseleniums RDA?55MCGUL for selenium is400 MGSelenium DV70 mcgchromium- AI- DV- UL-AI 35 mg for men, when men turn 50 years old it is 30 mg AI for women 25 mg, when women turn 50 is 20 mg Dv 120 mg No ULfluoride- AI- UL-AI for women is 3 mg AI for men is 4 mg UL is 0.1 mg/kg per body weight when you are over 8 yrs old it is over 10 mgMolybdenum- RDA- DV-RDA 45 mcg DV 75 mcgIron (Fe) without 2 electrons is calledFerrouIron without 3 electrons is called ...FerricHemoglobin is found in ...RBCsHemoglobin transports...oxygen and carbon dioxidemyoglobin is found in which cells?musclewhich sources is heme iron found in?animal food sources onlywhich sources are non heme iron found in?both animal and plantiron is found in which foods?meats, seafoods and enriched bakery products, other "enriched" foods have iron in them as wellIron Fe- RDA... Avg north American intake is..RDA- 8mg for men, 18mg for women. after menopause its 8mg for both men and women Avg intake-12-17 mg/dayIron absorption-25% heme 10% non hemeferratin-protein that helps store iron in cells (liver spleen bone marrow)transferrin-a protein that carries iron in the blood (duodenum and jejunum)hematocrit-the volume of the rbcs in ratio to the volume of bloodtotal body content of iron?5 gwhere is iron found in the body?every cell, high amts in the liver and RBCsHow is iron lost?GI tract, skin, urine menstruationppl who are more suceptable to iron deficiency?infants toddlers, vegans, runners, women of childbearing ageUL for iron?45 mg dayhemochromatosis-iron overloadzinc (Zn)- functionscellular metabolism, immune fxn, protein synthesis, wound healing, supports growth and development during pregnancy, required for proper smell and tasteZinc needs- RDA- DV-RDA-11 for men, 8 for women DV-15UL for Zinc...40 mg/dayhow is Zinc absorbed?Simple diffusion and active transportwhat foods can zinc be found in?protein rich meat and seafood, legumes, nuts, and whole grains, and some veggies depending on the soilzinc will also bind to ______ which holds irontransferrinppl at risk for zinc deficiency-ppl w malabsorptive diseases, diabetics, older ppl, dialysis pts, sickle cell, alcoholics, downs syndrome, vegetarianshow is zinc excreted?by the pancrease to feces, also excrered by urine and sweatconsequences of zinc toxcicity-inhibits copper absorption, reduces HDL, increases risk of heart disease, diarrhea, cramps nausea vomiting, depressed immune fxncopper (Cu)- RDA- DV- AI-RDA-900 mcg Dv-2 mg AI- 1000-1600mcg daycoper is found In which foods?liver, shellfish, nuts, seeds, mushrooms, soy, dark chocolatecoppers UL...10 MG/dayabsorption of copper is...30-40%zinc and ____compete for absorptioncopperManganese(Mn) is found in which foods?whole grain cereal, nuts, legumes and teaManganese shares functional similarities with ____ and ____zinc and copperiodine is excreted from the _____kidneysselenium is found in which foods?seafood, meats, grains, nutsChromium is found in which foods?processed meats liver eggs whole grain productsfluoride promotes____ and ___ healthtooth and boneenriched-addition of nutrients that were lost during processing. these nutrients may be added in larger quantities than originally foundfortified-addition of nutrients into PROCESSED foods whether they were part of the food or not._____-_____% of B vitamins are absorbed in diet50-90%thiamin (B1)-RDA-1.2 MG MEN/1.1 WOMEN DV 1.5MG/DAY north American intake is 1.2-2.0 mg/day NO ULWernicke-Korsakoff syndrome-mainly affects alcoholics due to diminished thiamin absorption. increases thiamin excretionNiacin-B3- RDA- DV- UL-RDA-16 mg men/14 mg women DV-20mg UL 35mg60 mg of tryptophan= ___ mg niacin11 gr of protein = ____mg of tryptophan10pellagra-rough skin corn based diets 3 d's-diarrhea, dementia, dermatitiswater soluable vitamins are excreted by the ____kidneysVitamin A- RDA- DV-RDA-900mcg men/ 700 women DV-1000 mcgVitamin A Needs- IU- RAE-IU-crude method of measurement (Old) RAE- current, more precise method of measurement (New)how much Vitamin A is absorbed in the body?70-90%Vitamin D- AI- DV- UL-AI-age 1-70=600 IU/15mcg over 70=800IU/20mcg Dv=10 mcg/400 IU UL= 50 MCGsynthesis of the active form of vitamin D is regulated by the _____parathyroid gland and kidneysvitamin d is stored in the____ ____fat tissuevitamin e- RDA- DV-RDA-15mg DV-30 IU/20mghow much vit E is absorbed in the body?20-70%vitamin E is stored in the_____fat tissuesvit k AI- DV- UL-AI-90mcg women/men 120 mcg DV-80 mcg UL-noneup to ___ % of vitamin k is absorbed in the small intestine80%choline is not considered a B vitamin bc ______it doesn't have a co enzyme fxn and the amt in the body is much greater than that of vit B__________% of the bodys vit B12 supply is stored in thelivercholine AI- ULAI-550 mg men/ women UL- 3.5 gvitamin c is stored in thepituitary and adrenal glands, WBCs, eyes and brainvitamin c is excreted in the ______kidneysvitamin c enhances _________iron absorptionnon heme_______and ______ inhibit vitamin c absorptionpectin and zincvit c RDA- DV- UL-RDA-90 mg men/ women 75 mg DV-60 mg UL-2 grams/daywater soluable vitaminsb, cenergy metabolism vitamins-thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin,vitamin b 12vitamins involved in blood formationvitamin b 6, b12, folate, vit kantioxidant defense vitamins-E, C, caretonoids, riboflavingene expression vitamins-A,Dimmune function vitamins-A, D,C,B6Bone health vitamins-A,D,K,Cextracellular fluid-outside of the cellsintracellular fluid-inside the cellwhich 2 compartments is body water found in ?intracellular and extracellularadh is released by the ____pituitary glandmajor minerals=macromineralsthose that are present and required in larger amounts in the body require more than 100 mg./daytrace minerals= micro mineralsrequire less than 100mg/daywhich vitmains improve mineral absorption?vitamin c and iron vitamin d and calcium, phosphorus, and magnesiumminerals are excreted in thekidneys, bile, fecesgeneral fxns of mineralscofactors components of body compounds transmission of nerve impulses body growth and development water balancewhich mineral creates an action potential?sodiumsodium is absorbed in the ____,___,____ and excreted in the kidneysstomach, small intestine and colonpotassium (k)- AI- DV- UL-AI-4700 mg DV-3500 mg typical intake is 2000-3000mg UL-nonechloride- AI- DV- Avg consumptionAI- 2300 DV-3400 Avg consumption-5400mgsystolic-120diastolic-80hypertension-140/9080% of phosphorus is found in the ___ &_____bones and teethphosphorus RDA- DV- UL-RDA-700mg day DV-1000 mg day UL-4 g daymagnesium- RDA DV ULRDA-400 men/310 women DV-400mg UL- 350 mg dayminerals that affect growth and development-calcium, phosphorus, zincantioxidant defense mineral-selenium, zinc, copper, manganesebone health minerals-calcium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, fluoride, manganesewater and ion balance in cells-sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, waterblood pressure regulation minerals-sodium, potassium, manganese, calciumbenefits from eating foods rich in beta carotene?protects eye tissues, decreased cancer risk, prevents free radical damagefor most vitamins the natural forms...have the same benefit as the synthetic formsover ___% of the bodys vitamin A stores are found in the liver90excessive intakes of vitamin ___ and vitamin ___ negatively effect the actions of vitamin kA, Ewhat food groups provide the highest levels of vitamin c?fruits and vegetableswhich b vitamin is important for protein synthesis?folatehow are water soluable vitamins characterized?organic, low risk of toxicity, fxn primarily in energy metabolismwhich vitamin is needed by nearly all amino acids for metabolism?b6the stomach produces the intrinsic factor that is necessary in order to absorb which vitamin?b12rich sources of niacin include:beef, fish, poultryhow are b vitamins present in foods?as co enzymes, as vitamins bound to protein