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APES: Prerequisite knowledge and skills
Terms in this set (63)
is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon
lack carbon and hydrogen atoms. They are traditionally viewed as being synthesized by the agency of geological systems
Existing in or caused by nature; not made or caused by humankind.
Not natural or genuine; artificial or contrived
the energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity
the energy of an object or a system due to the position of the body or the arrangement of the particles of the system.
The spontaneous transformation of an unstable atomic nucleus into a lighter one, in which radiation is released in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and other particles.
the constant time period required for the disintegration of half of the atoms in a sample of some specific radioactive substance
law of conservation of matter
a fundamental principle of classical physics that matter cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system
1st law of thermodynamics
recognizes a particular form of energy called internal energy. It is often formulated by stating that the change in the internal energy of a closed system is equal to the amount of heat supplied to the system, minus the amount of work derived from the system.
2nd law of thermodynamics
states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve toward thermodynamic equilibrium—the state of maximum entropy
(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
the people who inhabit a territory or state
a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).They are able to make their own food, and do not need a living energy or organic carbon source
an organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth
organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms
photosynthesis (reactants and products)
6 H2O + 6 CO2 ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Carbon dioxide and water are the two reactants, and carbohydrates (glucose) and oxygen are the end products.
cellular respiration (reac and prod)
The reactants: glucose and oxygen while the products: carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen + Sugar ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water.
depending on free oxygen or air
does not need free oxygen to survive
the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)
a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
which involve genes and characteristics of organisms
It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences
the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species. This also proves to be the basic level at which evolution occurs.
the gradual natural process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of the effect of inherited traits on the differential reproductive success of organisms interacting with their environment. It is a key mechanism of evolution.
e degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, biome, or planet
the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
A theory explaining the structure of the earth's crust and many associated phenomena as resulting from the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates that move slowly over the underlying mantle
the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on Earth's surface.
significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions
The solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth and other planets.
solid homogeneous inorganic substances occurring in nature having a definite chemical composition
the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time
the meteorological conditions: temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation