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Terms in this set (213)
The _____ perspective is the study of the neural processes that occur during social judgment and behavior.
_____ bias is the tendency to view events and people in ways that fit how we want and expect them to be.
The ______ perspective is a view that humans are a species of animal and that their social behavior is a consequence of particular evolved adaptations.
Consistent preferences, ways of thinking, and behavioral tendencies that manifest across varying situations and over time are:
Which major historical event helped foster the development of social psychology because many people questioned how normal members of society could commit such atrocities?
World War II
Jamar realizes that he avoids an intersection because he previously got into an accident at that location. This would be evidence of which perspective?
According to the text, the "great lesson of social psychology" is the power of:
A behaviorist would say that a behavior followed by a desirable outcome is likely to _____.
What is the process of developing, testing, and refining theories to understand the determinants of social behaviors called?
A social psychologist who believes social behaviors are unlearned and uninfluenced by experience, similarly to how a fish knows how to swim, would believe behavior is based on:
A(n) ______ situation would increase the probability of limiting the mental resources being expended.
During a lecture Dr. Harrison speaks against all research that focuses on wishes, feelings, and the unconscious mind. It is MOST likely that Dr. Harrison adheres to the _____ perspective.
Behavior is a joint product of person-based and _____ influences.
Dr. Brown begins his social psychology class by drawing the metaphor of human beings as information processors. Which social psychological perspective does Dr. Brown MOST likely follow?
What is the term for the view that people act as intuitive scientists when they observe other people's behavior and infer explanations as to why those people acted the way they did?
Someone from the _____ perspective would be MOST likely to say human behavior is due to repressed desires for sex and aggression.
The core assumption that behavior is strongly influence by social _____ is evidenced by Fritz Heider's observation that people's causal explanations of others' actions play a significant role in determining their behavior.
Sarah sees a therapist who states that her anxiety problems are due to deeply repressed feelings. Her therapist probably comes from which school of thought?
Jordan MOST likely comes from the _____ perspective. She focuses on the cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of basic aspects of the human condition such as the knowledge of mortality, the desire for meaning, and the precarious nature of identity.
Maria MOST likely comes from the _____ perspective because she focuses on the influence of one's social network on thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
Technological advances have been particularly beneficial to which field of social psychology?
Guinevere conducts research using brain scans and heart rate monitors. Which psychological perspective does Guinevere MOST likely come from?
Joan believes human behaviors are a result of the basic nature of the self and the core human motives. Joan most likely prescribes to which major social psychology perspective?
Someone from which social psychological perspective would be MOST likely to use brain scans and heart rate monitors in their research?
Maria argues that humans are only social creatures because it is an adaptation that increased the species chances of survival. Maria MOST likely adheres to the _____ perspective.
Marcia feels like she knows Alex very well. Yet, around his group of friends, Marcia is shocked by how differently he behaves than when he is with her alone. Marcia did not account for the power of the _____ on behavior.
What is the term for preexisting theories, acquired from culture or factors that are particularly prominent in conscious attention at the moment?
a priori causal theories
Social _____ is an example of how behavior depends on a socially constructed view of reality.
Kiki acts very differently across different environments (e.g., social settings). This is not unusual because people may be influenced by:
Kathy recently ended her several-month-long relationship with Jon. He is devastated, and tries to logically think through all of the factors that would have made her break up with him. This logical process of Jon acting like an intuitive scientist is called _____ theory.
Sam is in an experiment where he unknowingly drinks the same coffee from two different cups. One cup is labeled with a brand name of coffee and the other cup is labeled with an off-brand of coffee. Sam claims his favorite coffee in the study is the "name brand" coffee because it tasted better. What could lead Sam to make this inaccurate statement?
a priori causal theories
Julie is participating in an experiment on teams and cooperation with Miguel. Unbeknownst to Julie, Miguel is actually working for the experimenters. Miguel is an example of a(n) _____.
How would you describe the overall trend in SAT critical reading and math scores over the past 40 years?
The correlation coefficient shows the direction and _____ of a relationship between two variables.
A good theory should have _____ applications that help researchers and the broader community solve pressing problems and improve the quality of life.
A(n) _____ definition entails a specific, concrete method of measuring or manipulating a conceptual variable.
The aspects of a study that give away its purpose or communicate expectations about how the participant is likely to behave are _____ characteristics.
In _____ studies two variables are measured at multiple points in time.
Theories create order out of chaos and simplify the vast array of facts around us. This demonstrates which strength of a good theory?
It organizes observations.
Which statement is true of social psychology?
Human beings can never be truly objective as they conduct research.
Which is NOT an ethical safeguard in psychology research?
Federal Research Board review of all research.
What does the numerical value of a correlation coefficient tell about the relationship between the two variables?
the strength of the relationship
Darwin's theory of evolution was particularly useful because it provides new information about the reasons that humans and other animals have developed in the ways they have developed. This demonstrates which strength of a good theory?
It explains observations.
The repetition of a study with different operationalizations of the crucial variable but yielding similar results is called _____ replication.
Participants must usually provide which item before they are able to begin an experiment?
No one would expect that there is a causal relationship between ice cream sales and drownings. Yet, as ice cream sales go up, then so do drownings. This is an example of:
the third variable problem.
Tasha is an experimental physicist. She creates a theory on the origin of black holes. Her research stimulates a new field of research. This best explains which strength of a good theory?
It generates new questions.
Theories deal with _____ conceptual variables.
In order to create the psychological states necessary to research what a social psychologist is trying to investigate in an experiment, _____ can be required.
If a research finding showed that extraverted individuals were more likely to have success in job interviews, it MOST likely came from a(n) _____ study.
Pedro creates a new theory that sheds light on phenomena he never imagined with his original theory. This demonstrates which strength of a good theory?
It generates new questions.
Human knowledge is _____. Scientists will never know all answers, and human knowledge is not infinite.
What is the term for a study in which the researcher takes active control and manipulates one variable to investigate its effect on another variable?
A theory is only scientifically useful to the extent that it creates _____ that can be tested for its fit with reality.
Which term refers to a specific, concrete method of measuring or manipulating a conceptual variable?
Which aspect of harm could it be argued was violated in Milgram's shock study?
no lasting mental harm to the participant
Unlike the correlational method, the _____ method allows a researcher to examine cause and effect.
Maria creates a theory that when applied can help identify barriers to receiving vaccinations. This demonstrates which strength of a good theory?
It has practical value.
What can be thought of as the degree to which the manipulation impacts what it intends to manipulate?
A(n) _____ story is an explanation for the purpose of a study that is different from the true purpose.
Mara is studying bullying in elementary school. She works with several schools in her region to measure bullying within the actual classroom. This is an example of _____ research.
Sierra has been studying the effects of stigmatization on job performance for a number of years. She has recently developed a theory that integrates all of these findings. This demonstrates which strength of a good theory?
It organizes observations.
_____ validity can be thought of as the degree to which the manipulation impacts what it intends to manipulate.
Which statement is NOT true regarding harming participants. It might be unethical to inflict pain on participants:
in all circumstances
Rashad wants to know how extraversion impacts one's number of friends. In this example, the number of friends is the _____ variable.
Jenna is studying consumer behavior in malls. She places different types of signs within stores and tracks how these signs impact product purchases. This is an example of _____ research.
A theory must specify clear _____ between variables that help us understand the processes through which particular events in the world occur.
Theories help us _____ the many observations around us. This means theories often provide a more abstract and general way of describing these observations.
Raquel notices that she gets better grades on exams that take place in colder weather. Thus, there is a negative correlation between temperature and her test grades. What does this tell you about the two variables?
The correlation does not imply the two variables have a causal relationship
The famous Milgram experiment had participants go to the campus of Yale University to complete the shock experiment. This is an example of _____ research.
Dr. Patel conducts research by posting an electronic survey that asks questions about job satisfaction and salary and then looks at the relationship between the two based on the responses. This is an example of _____ research.
Dr. Khan is designing a research study on the effects of sleep deprivation of memory. His study involves two experimental groups. He makes sure each participant has the same probability of becoming a member of each group. This strategy of making sure each group is as similar as possible on all relevant variables is called:
Is safety more important than freedom? This BEST illustrates which limitation of social psychology?
Not all questions can be answered scientifically.
Ensuring findings generalize to other populations, settings, and context relates to _____ validity.
Once internal validity has been established, then a researcher can start to focus on _____ validity.
Geraldo conducts a study where students come into his lab and fill out questionnaires on personality and general mental ability and he then looks at the relationship between the two based on the responses. This is an example of _____ research.
Janice is doing a study on medical error by making direct behavioral observations within hospitals. This is an example of _____ research.
Dr. Jackson creates a theory that receives significant scientific attention. Several new research studies are conducted to test the specific aspects of the theory. This best explains which strength of a good theory?
It provides directions for research.
If different studies, each flawed in one way or another, with possible confounds operating, yield consistent results, the probability that an alternative explanation is responsible for the results is:
A good theory should explain a wide range of observations with a relatively small number of basic principles. Thus, a good theory is _____.
An issue with social psychology is the number of studies that rely on a college sample. This may strongly impact the _____ validity of these studies.
Cameron is studying fraternity drinking behavior by having fraternity partygoers take breath alcohol tests to determine their level of intoxication. MOST likely, Cameron's operational definition of drinking is based on:
Marco is examining a new cancer drug's effectiveness at reducing the number of cancer cells in a person's body. In this example, the number of cancer cells is the _____ variable.
If Jenny performed a study where she examined if violent crimes were more likely to occur in warmer climates it would be an example of a(n) _____ study.
Dr. Goldstein is looking at how stereotypical names associated with various races will impact the likelihood of a person's getting a job interview. He sends out 500 identical resumes where he only changes the name of the applicant between "David Smith" and "Jerome Brown." He then counts the number of job interviews offered to each name. In this example, the name is the _____ variable.
Sandra has been trying to understand why her last relationship failed. In her social psychology class she read a section of the text on romance. She found a theory that helped her understand why her relationship may have ended in disaster. This demonstrates which strength of a good theory?
It explains observations.
Aliyah wants to know how extraversion impacts one's number of friends. In this example, extraversion is the _____ variable.
Dr. Franken spent decades of his career trying to get various religious rivalries to get along, but only had limited success. What does this demonstrate about social psychology?
The science of social psychology is limited.
A new theory does NOT need to be immediately _____. In fact, technology is often developed based on this condition not being met.
A theory must specify clear relationships between variables that help us understand the processes through which particular events in the world occur. This best explains which strength of a good theory?
It organizes observations.
After developing a relevant theory, a researcher will next develop a(n) _____ that describes the expected relationship between the variables of the study.
One benefit of a(n) _____ study is that it helps examine how variables change over time.
Theories that are able to account for a wide variety of observations are said to have _____ power.
A theory should generate new _____.
Janelle is a highly ethical researcher who tries her best to remain objective. However, all humans are _____, and their personal feelings and opinions impact their research.
The text describes stereotypes as a doubly threatening situation because their performance not only impacts how they are perceived, but also how their _____ is perceived.
If different researchers get consistent results from testing a hypothesis, the results are said to be:
An in-depth observation of a small sample or single individual is an example of which research method?
a case study.
Manipulation of the experiment means that:
all variables are controlled for, except the one being tested.
What area of psychology is in direct opposition to psychoanalysis?
What famous psychologist is known for his significant contributions to the area of behavioral psychology?
A view that focuses on how people perceive, remember, and interpret events and individuals, including themselves, in their social world is known as:
social cognition perspective.
The process of developing, testing, and refining theories to understand the determinants of social behavior is called:
the scientific method.
Which method of social psychology would be MOST likely to rely on the use of experiments?
the scientific method
Experiments are a way of developing, testing, and refining:
Preexisting theories, acquired from culture or factors that are particularly prominent in conscious attention at the moment, are referred to as:
a priori causal theories.
Mason served as a confederate for a study conducted by his psychology class. During the study conducted with participants, Mason touched his face and tapped his hands on the desk throughout the session. What behavior was MOST likely exhibited by the participants?
The participants touched their faces and tapped their hands on the desk more often with Mason present in the room.
People often _____ each other without realizing it.
The process whereby scientists observe events, look for patterns, and evaluate theories proposed to explain those patterns is known as:
In scientific thinking, a fact is the _____ of research observations and a theory is a(n) _______ for those facts.
In scientific thinking, a ____ is the content of research observations and a _____ is an explanation for those facts.
An explanation of the purpose of the study that is different from the true purpose is called:
a cover story
At what point in the study does debriefing occur?
at the end.
What is included in informed consent?
A. potential risks that participation might entail
B. full disclosure of all the procedures participants will undergo
C. All of these are correct
D. assurance that the information they provide will be treated as confidential
Correct Answer: C
_______ suggests that different species are descended from common ancestors but have evolved over time and have acquired different genetic characteristics as a function of different environmental demands.
The meaning of "fittest" depends entirely on the natural environment in which the organism:
Choose the answer that BEST demonstrates the process of natural selection.
Natural selection has no particular intention or pursuit of goals.
Research suggests that there are _____ primary emotions.
Hedonism is the preference for _____ over _____.
Research suggests that when attempting to understand why people behave the way they do, it is informative to consider which two motivational orientations?
A(n) _____ is an accepted idea about some aspect of reality.
Another word to describe an attitude is:
The transfer of inventions, knowledge, and ideas from one culture to another is called cultural:
How a culture adapts to its physical surroundings has an influence on:
perceptions; thought processes.
What factor is valued in a collectivistic culture?
A. All the answers are correct
D. welfare of the group
Correct Answer: A
What type of culture is one MOST likely from who exhibits a more independent self-construal?
The inhabitants of Bikini Island, indigenous tribal cultures across the world, and children displaced by war are all examples of:
After graduating college, Steven embarked on a trip around the world in order to learn about other cultures and worldviews. Steven had never been outside of the United States prior to this trip. How will Steven MOST likely initially react to other cultures?
He will view the behavior of people in other cultures as strange.
The term bicultural is utilized for immigrants who have achieved:
The notion that people construct an understanding of reality is the underpinning of which psychological theoretical orientation?
The theory of lay epistemology is influenced by which 3 motives?
the need for accurate knowledge; the need for nonspecific closure; the need for specific closure
Basic motives influence thinking about the _____ world.
Facilitated communication is a technique that supposedly allows individuals with severe ____ to spell out their internal thoughts with an assistant.
Which organization denounced the validity of facilitated communication?
American Psychological Association
What is the definition of the somatic marker hypothesis?
The idea that there are certain somatic changes that people experience as emotion.
______ are like mental "containers" in which people place things that are similar.
A(n) ______ is a mental structure, stored in memory, that is based on prior knowledge.
What do television and movies provide for most children in industrialized nations?
C. All of these are correct
Correct Answer: C
What can the motive for accuracy lead people to do?
set aside schemas and focus on objective facts
Olivia's favorite baseball team is the New York Yankees, and Haley's favorite baseball team is the Boston Red Sox. While watching a heated baseball game together, a penalty is called on the Yankees. Identify what behavior is MOST likely to occur.
Olivia's interpretation of the penalty will be biased.
Based on research documented in your text, participants in _____ mood states focused on relevant details before making a judgment.
Information and input that is currently activated is called ______ memory.
Addison was very distracted in class when her teacher provided information about the upcoming exam. Choose the answer that BEST explains Addison's experience.
Addison was not paying the attention needed to encode the information presented by her teacher.
Identify which factor is involved when judgment is less reliant on an ease of retrieval effect.
greater ability to store information
According to Dweck (1975), what causal attribution was found to be MOST productive for poor performance?
internal, unstable factors
According to the actor observer bias, people more likely to make _______ attributions for the behavior of others and _______ attributions for our own behaviors.
According to Harold Kelly, what source of information is involved for arriving at a causal attribution when accuracy is important?
C. All of the answers are correct
Correct Answer: C
A set of ideas about other people's thoughts, desires, feelings, and intentions, given what we know about them and the situation they are in, is called:
theory of mind.
Neurons that are activated both when one performs an action oneself and when one simply observes another person perform that action are called____ neurons.
Teresa's new math teacher initially presented himself as challenging, strict, and unapproachable. During the second week of class, her teacher presented himself as more relaxed, kind, and flexible. Despite this, Teresa was intimidated by her teacher and did not approach him to ask questions she had about the assignment. Teresa's reaction is BEST described based on:
the primacy effect.
Upward counterfactuals generally make people feel ____ about what actually happened.
In what domain of life has research suggested that people most commonly regret their inaction?
Research on the 1995 Barcelona Summer Olympics suggested that _____-medal winners were more likely to focus on the downward counterfactual.
The view that you hold of yourself and your traits, social roles, and social identities is called the:
Choose the statement MOST likely expressed by someone within a collectivist culture.
"I am a daughter."
Women identify themselves as _______ when rating themselves as compared to men.
A. more anxious
B. All of these are correct
C. more conscientious
D. more trusting
Correct Answer: B
Comparing oneself with those who are worse off is called:
Choose the answer that BEST reflects the basic idea of self-perception.
We often lack a strong internal feeling about who we are or how we feel, so we look to our own behavior to make inferences about what we are like.
Stan Schachter was responsible for the development of which theory?
two-factor theory of emotion
What is a psychological term for willpower?
A. ego control
B. impulse control
C. ego strength
D. All of these are correct
Correct Answer: D
Lance is attempting to lose 25 pounds and has been dieting and exercising regularly. Lance attends a birthday party where his favorite cake is served; however, he resists the urge to have a piece. What BEST explains Lance's ability to resist his favorite cake?
According to research, how long can it take to strengthen self-control?
In Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) study on cognitive dissonance, $20.00 was an example of a:
strong external justification.
A clearly defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable self-concept is called:
What is a self-narrative?
Choose the answer that BEST reflects how the self-serving attributional is associated with mental health.
Some level of self-serving attributions preserve self-esteem and are common among well-adjusted people.
Which answer BEST reflects how children minimize anxiety?
by being good
People who are sensitive to threats to their self-esteem tend to have which type of self-esteem?
In the dramaturgical perspective, conscious attempt to perform in a certain way in order to make a particular impression is called a ________ performance.
During George's presentation to his history class, he became nervous and anxious. George was certain everyone in the class could tell that he was very nervous, with sweaty palms, a racing heart, and a dry mouth, even though the majority of the class did not even realize that George was nervous. What BEST explains George's belief?
the illusion of transparency
Self-presentation achieves _____ and _____ goals, such as getting a job and protecting self-image.
Achieving _____ is the feeling of being completely absorbed in an activity that is appropriately challenging to one's skills.
Attentiveness to the present moment in which one is actively involved with one's actions and their meaning is called:
Miriam is 89 years old and has seen many of her friends die. Miriam thinks about death often. Identify which positive effect will MOST likely result from Miriam's thoughts of death.
Miriam will want to maximize enjoyment of her life.
Social learning theory is based on the notion of observing others and imitating their behaviors. The others we observe are called _______.
In Bandura's Bobo doll studies (Bandura et al., 1961, 1963a, 1963b), children were LESS likely to imitate the Bobo-doll-bashing if the model was _____ for the actions.
Abusive behavior toward others is generally disapproved of in Western culture. Therefore the generally accepted rule that such behavior should not occur would be considered which type of norm?
Lisa is particularly quiet and whispers when she enters a library. Which term BEST explains Lisa's behavior?
According to your text, nonconformists show _____ automatic activation of norms.
In a study conducted by Aarts and colleagues (2003), findings indicated that nonconformists:
were less likely to activate a concept of silence when expecting to visit a library.
Private acceptance is defined as:
conforming by altering private beliefs as well as public behavior.
In Asch's (1956) classic conformity study, it was found that _____ conformed to the group opinion in at least one trial.
Normative influence occurs when we go along with the group in an effort to be:
liked and accepted.
The process by which dissenters produce attitude change within a group, despite the extraordinary risk of social rejection and disturbance of the status quo is called:
Minority influence is defined as the process by which dissenters produce attitude:
change within a group, despite the risk of social rejection and disturbance of the status quo.
Kevin holds a minority opinion at work. During business meetings, Kevin takes longer to express his opinion as compared with his work colleagues. Choose the answer that BEST explains Kevin's behavior.
minority slowness effect
_____ is a tendency to conform to what we believe respected others think and do.
The term that BEST encompasses the concept of social proof is:
What is MOST likely to happen when a technology company produces a state-of-the-art product but this new gadget has a limited supply?
People will wait in line for many hours in an attempt to obtain the new gadget.
What percentage of participants obeyed instructions to the point of agreeing to deliver a dangerous 450-volt shock to the learner in Milgram's obedience study?
What personality trait has been associated with higher rates of obedience?
higher moral development
Boldness, _____, and a vision that inspires and meets the psychological needs of followers are attributes found in a charismatic leader.
What term refers to a person's intentional efforts to change other people's attitudes?
Persuasion is a person's _____ effort to change other people's attitudes.
What term refers to a person's evaluation of a stimulus, which can range from positive to negative?
What route will people MOST likely take when motivation and ability to process the message are high?
the central route to persuasion
Based on results from Rich Petty and colleagues' (1983) study on consumer attitudes, people who took which route of persuasion were NOT influenced by peripheral cues?
The person or group communicating a message is called the:
Roger is a marketing manager who is developing marketing strategies for a new over-the-counter pain medicine. Roger has hired an actor to play the role of a medical expert. In order to be perceived as persuasive and trustworthy, what is the BEST choice for the actor's clothing?
a white lab coat
The phenomenon whereby people can remember a message but forget where it came from is called:
the sleeper effect.
What factor can increase persuasiveness, even with low credibility?
Identify which option MOST likely results in a strong message.
The message must be comprehensible, while at the same time taking its length into consideration.
If the audience is taking the peripheral route, which type of message tends to be more persuasive?
What occurs when people's attitudes are influenced not only by what they think about the message but also by how confident those thoughts feel?
cognitive response approach to persuasion
During what age range do attitudes tend to solidify and become more resistant to change?
late 20s and beyond
What is it called to have a general tendency to think and act in ways oriented toward the avoidance of negative outcomes?
A prevention focus is when people have a general tendency to think and act in ways oriented toward the _____ of a _____ outcome.
Justin has been forbidden by his parents to date his classmate Holly. Based on knowledge of psychological reactance theory, what is Justin's reaction MOST likely to be?
Justin will oppose the restriction and date Holly despite his parents' wishes.
What is a truism?
a belief that people accept without questioning
When are people MOST likely to resist persuasion?
when their motivation is increased and they are given the means to do so
According to the theory of planned behavior, attitudes are one of _____ aspects in the intentions that we form.
According the theory of planned behavior, attitudes, norms, and perceived control all shape people's intentions to engage in:
A person's willingness refers specifically to a person's _____ to being influenced by social circumstances.
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