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People in Christian History Part 2
Terms in this set (20)
Augustine of Hippo
Bishop of Hippo, Confessions, City of God, On the Trinity, Donatist Controversy, Pelagian Controversy
Missionary to Ireland
Educator and Historian
One of founders of the middle age, statesman, philosopher, best know work: "The Consolation of Philosophy"
Gregory the Great
Bishop of Rome, papacy leader, claimed universal jurisdiction over christendom, sent mission to Britain and RC overcame celtic xianity, stressed relics, demonology, relics, ascetic virtues, proclaimed Christian Commonwealth
Anglo-Saxon scholar - influenced the intellectual, cultural and religious direction of the Carolingian empire
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite
Unidentified 6th century Syrian - "The Divine Names", "Mystical Theology", "The Celestial Hierarchy" - hierarchy - angels, humans clergy... classes... Three stages of spiritual life: purification, illumination, and union. - advances in unknowing, illumination a ray of divine darkness
Paulicans and Bogomills
Pope Innocent III
Peak of authority and influence under Innocent - highly educated and skilled. Aa vicar of Christ he claimed the right to set aside any human actions due to contamination - Fourth Lateran Council 1215 - established papel authority in vast ways - heavily anti-semitic - Jews had to wear special badges
Bernard of Clairvaux
1090-1153 - Most influential Christian of his age - mystic, ascetic simplicity, devotion - highly educated - forced the election of a more moral pope - wrote rule for the knights templar, condemned scholastic rationalism of Abelard, preached the second crusade (low point) wrote hymns
Francis of Assisi
1182-1226 - founded order of monks - preaching caring for the poor - order politicised - retired - wrote
Archbishop of Canterbury - philosopher and theologian - early scholastic theologian "I believe, in order that I may understand. - put forward ontological argument for the existence of God. - Greatest work: Cur Deus Homo - Why God Became Man / Understood atonement in terms in terms that involved Christ's merit and reward
Stormy life - brilliant teacher - one of the pioneers of scholasticism - affair with Heloise, - convent - castration - Bennedictine monk - major thinker of his period but often had to defend position - desire to reconcile faith and reason "Yes and No"
Archbishop of Canterbury 1162-1170 - issue - independence of the church courts - right of appeals to Rome - church lands - Henry 2nd wanted authority - Becket driven into exile - truce - returned to Canterbury for Christmas 1170 - immediately excommunicated english bishops who had supported the king - infuriated king sent knights who killed Becket before the high altar on 12/29 - outcry, penance, hero
Greatest scholastic theologian of the Middle Ages - the "dumb ox" - brilliant - taught all his life in Paris and Italy Works fill 18 large volumes Two most important works: Summa Theologiae, and Summa Contra Gentiles - together an encyclopedia of Christian thought - 1st based on revelation, the 2nd on reason in support of revelation. / 5 Ways - proof of God's existence.
Peter Waldo - wealthy merchant - embraced poverty, translated scripture into popular vernacular - gathered into an order blessed by Pope Alexander the 3rd - had to have permission of local clergy in order to preach - originally orthodox - descended into schism "true church" mentality - condemned and excommunicated
martyr to the cause of church reform and Czech nationalism , Bethlehem Chapel in Prague - preached personal piety - followed Wycliffe - "On the Church" - clergy yes, but only God can forgive sin, Christ is head of the church.Burned at the stake in Rome in 1415
Italian reform preacher - executed. Remade Florence - attacked Pope - big mistake.
Reformer of the Middle Ages - battled abusive clergy privilege - disagreed with transubstantiation - priest was not mediator - championed people being able to read the Bible in their own language. Began translating the latin vulgate into English - Lollards
William of Ockham
Thinker of first rate importance. Fransican, Oxford, - called for college of Popes to rule, rejected papal authority in secular matters - Nominalist theory - lifted natural sciences - No universals only particulars as they are what are experienced. Ockham's Razor" = What can be arrived at with fewer assumptions is done in vain with more - the mind should not multiply things without necessity. God known by faith alone , not reason or illumination.
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