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The layer that contracts to churn food or move food along


Layer consisting of a membrane that lines a body cavity that opens to the exterior; overlays smooth muscle


Areolar connective tissue layer located deep to the mucosa


a serous membrane that is the external layer of a GI tract organ


Its only function is propulsion


A continuous digestive tube from the mouth to the anus

Alimentary canal

Conducts both air and food


Primary site of nutrient absorption; is composed of 3 sections

small intestine,

Section of small intestine that receives bile, pancreatic secretion, and food from the stomach


Churns food and begins protein digestion


Has two sphincters that control elimination of feces from the body


has regions called the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus


Has recgions called the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.

large intestine

Receives secretions from salivary glands; mastication occurs here.


Finger-like extentions increasing surface area in the small intestine


Folds in the gastrin mucosa


permanent deep ridges in the small intestine mucosa

circular folds

sphincter valve between the stomach and duodenum

pyloric sphincter

serous membrane that lines the abdominal wall

parietal peritoneum

serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs

viseral peritoneum

sphincter that connects the small and large intestine

ileocecal sphincter

fluid that begins digestion of carbohydrates


bony plat between the mouth and nose

hard palate

forms a brush border ; extension of epithelial cells


keeps food and fluids from going up into nasopharynx


Area between the lips and teeth


Region of the stomach where the lower esophageal sphincter meets the stomach


Has regions called ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid.

large intestine

Narrowed region of the stomach before the small intestine


A series of gathered pouches in the large intestine


mechanically breaks down food during mastication


Secretes enzymes that digest carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids


Salivary glands located under the tongue with ducts that open in the floor of mouth


produces and secretes bile into ducts


peritoneal membrane that holds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall


the secretions of this gland join with the bile to enter the duodenum


peritoneal fold that hold the liver to the anterior abdominal wall

falciform ligament

Manipulates food in mastication


Fatty, large fold of peritoneum covering the transverse colon and small intestine

greater omentum

largest salivary glands whose ducts open by the upper second molars

parotid glands

stores and secrets bile into the duodenum


peritoneal membrane that attaches the stomach and duodenum to the liver

lesser omentum

Salivary glands whose ducts open lateral to the lingual frenulum


Trace bile from its secretion to the gallbladder for storage and concentration, and then to the duodenum.

bile canaliculi, bile ducts, left and right hepatic ducts, common hepatic duct, cystic duct, gallbladder, cystic duct, common hepatic duct, hepatopancreatic duct.

Trace blood from the hepatic portal vein through the liver to the inferior vena cava, listing the structures in order.

Hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, sinusoids, central vein, hepatic vein, inferior vena cava.

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