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Life On Earth - Chapter 3 (Biological Molecules)
Life On Earth - Chapter 3 (Biological Molecules)
Terms in this set (48)
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule composed of the sugar ribose, the base adenine, and three phosphate groups.
The individual subunit of which proteins are made, composed of a carbon atom bonded to an amina group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable group of atoms denoted by the letter R.
A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, with the appropriate chemical formula (CH2O); includes sugars and starches.
An insoluble carbohydrate composed of glucose subunits.
Compound composed of chains of nitrogen-containing modified glucose molecules.
A chemical reaction in which two moleculess are joined by a covalent bond with the simultaneous removal of a hydrogen from one molecule and a hydroxyl from the other, forming water.
To disrupt the secondary and/or tertiary structure of a protein while leaving its amino acid sequence intact. Denatured proteins can no longer perform their biological functions.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A molecule composed of deoxyribose nucleotides; contains the genetic information of all living cells.
A carbohydrate formed by the covalent bonding of two monosaccharides.
The covalent bond formed between the sulfur atoms of two cysteines in a protein; typically causes the protein to fold by brining otherwise distant parts of the protein closer together.
A protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions.
A lipid composed of three saturated fatty acids covalent bonded to glycerol; solid at room temperature.
An organic molecule composed of a long change of carbon atoms, with a carboxyl acid group at one end; may be saturated (all single bonds between C) or unsaturated (one or more double bonds).
One of several groups of atoms commonly found in an organic molecule, including hydrogen, hydroxyl, amino, carboxyl, and phosphate groups, that determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of the molecule.
The most common monosaccharide; most polysaccharides, including cellulose, starch, and glycogen, are made of glucose subunits covalently bonded together
A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.
A coil, springlike secondary structure of a protein.
The chemical reaction that breaks a covalent bond by adding water.
Describing any molecule that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen.
A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose.
Organic molecule that contains large nonpolar regions composed solely of C and H, which make lipids hydrophobic and insoluble in water; includes oils, fats, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids.
A disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules.
A small organic molecule, several of which may be bonded together to form a chain called a polymer.
The basic molecular unit of all carbohydrates, normaly composed of a chain of C atoms bonded to hydrogen and hydroxyl groups.
An organic molecule composed of nucleotide subunits. EX: DNA or RNA.
A subunit of which nucleic acids are composed of; a phosphate group bonded to a sugar, which in turn is bonded to a nitrogen-containing base.
A lipid composed of three fatty acids, some of which are unsaturated, covalently bonded to a glycerol; liquid at room temperature.
Describing a molecule that contains both C and H.
A chain composed of two or amino acids linked together by a peptide bond.
The covalent bond between two amino acids, joining them into a peptide or protein.
A lipid consisting of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and one phosphate group.
A form of primary structure in which protein chains live side-by side, with hydrogen bonds holding adjacent chains together.
Long chains of monomers.
A polymer of many monosaccharides.
The amino acid sequence of a protein structure.
Polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
The complex 3-dimensional structure of protein composed of more than one peptide chain.
Ribonucleic Acids (RNA)
Molecules composed of ribose nucleotides, each of which consists of a phosphate group, a sugar ribose, and one of the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil; involved in converting the information in DNA into protein.
Referring to fatty acids with as many hydrogen atoms as possible bonded to a carbon backbone; a fatty acid with no double bonds in its carbon backbone.
A repeated, regular structure assembled by protein chains held together by hydrogen bonds; for example, a helix.
A polysaccharide that is composed of branched or unbranched chains or glucose molecules; used by plants as a carbohydrate-storage molecule
A lipid consisting of four fused carbon rings, with various function groups attached.
A disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose.
A simple carbohydrate molecule, either a monosaccharide or a disaccharide.
The complex 3-dimensional structure of a single peptide chain; held in place by disulfide bonds between cysteines.
A lipid composed of three fatty-acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol molecule.
Referring to a fatty acid with fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon backbone; a fatty acid with one or more double bonds in its carbon backbone.
A lipid composed of fatty acids covalently bonded to long-chain alcohols.
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