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The dielectric in a capacitor serves two purposes. It increases the capacitance, compared to an otherwise identical capacitor with an air gap, and it increases the maximum potential difference the capacitor can support. If the electric field in a material is sufficiently strong, the material will suddenly become able to conduct, creating a spark. The critical field strength, at which breakdown occurs, is 3.0 MV/m for air, but 60 MV/m for Teflon. a. A parallel-plate capacitor consists of two square plates, 15 cm on a side, spaced 0.50 mm apart with only air between them. What is the maximum energy that can be stored by the capacitor? b. What is the maximum energy that can be stored if the plates are separated by a 0.50-mm-thick Teflon sheet?
Suppose two beakers are placed in a small closed container at 25°C. One cont ains 400 mL of a 0.100-M aqueous solution of NaCl; the second contains 200 mL of a 0.250-M aqueous solution of NaCl. Small amounts of water evaporate from both solutions. As time passes, the volume of solution in the second beaker gradually increases, and that in the first gradually decreases. Why? If we wait long enough, what will the final volumes and concentrations be?