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affirmative action

programs for minorities supported by government as a means of providing equality under the law

americans with disabilities act

act that required employers, schools, and public buildings to reasonably accommodate the physical needs of handicapped individuals by providing such things as ramps and elevators with appropriate facilities

brandeis brief

a friend of the court opinion offered of the presidency to promote a particular program and/or to influence Congress to accept legislative proposals

civil rights

the application of equal protection under the law to individuals

de facto segregation

segregation of schools and other public facilities through circumstance with no law supporting it

de jure segregation

segregation by law, made illegal by Brown v Board of Education

declaration of sentiments and resolutions

drafted at the Seneca Falls Cenvention and taken from the History of Woman Suffrade, Vol 1 by E.C. Stanton, S.B. Anthony, and M.J. Gage, the document outlines the case for the right to vote for women, as well as other rights denied to women at that time

equal protection under the law

phrase found in the 14th amendment of the constitution that furthers the legal concept of civil rights. originally intended to protect freed former slaces, the clause was later expanded by court interpretation to protect other minority groups

immigration act of 1991

act that shifted the quota of immigrants to Europe and aimed to attract immigrants who were trained workers

jim crow laws

legislation that legalized segregation even after the adoption of the 14th amendment

nationalization of the bill of rights

a judicial doctrine of the 14th amendment that applied the bill of rights to the states in matters such as segregation

plessy v ferguson

case that rules that states had the right to impose "seperate but equal" facilities on its citizens as well as create other laws that segregated the races

separate but equal

the judicial prededent established in the Plessy v Ferguson decision that enabled states to interprete the equal protection provision of the 14th amendment as a means of establishing segregation


the right to vote guaranteed to African-Americans in the 14th amendment and women in the 19th amendment

gitlow v new york

freedom of speech

near v minnesota

freedom of the press

powell v alabama

access to a lawyer in captial cases

de jonge v oregon

freedom of assembly

cantwell v connecticut

freedom of religion

wolf v colorado

unreasonable search and seizure

richmond v corson

established 5 procedures for evaluatinng the legitimacy of affirmative action programs

grantz v bollinger

school admission was unconstitutional b/c relied too much on a quota system

grutter v bollinger

school admission was constitutional b/c it relied on a broad-based policy of using race as a basis for admission

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