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Force and power production can be maximized by increasing both the number of motor units recruited as well as the _____________ of motor unit firing.
frequency
Metabolism ____________ during EPOC.
remains elevated
The force velocity curve describes the relationship between _______________.
force and speed
Identify a true statement about Type I, or slow-twitch, muscle fibers.
They contain a large number of capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin. (Making them red in color)
- slow to fatigue
- smaller in size
- long term contraction (stabilization)
What are carbohydrates eventually broken down to in the human body?
glucose
Identify the term that refers to the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction.
stroke volume
In which of the following scenarios would energy be mostly derived from the ATP-PC System?
when an athlete begins an activity
A force that produces rotation is called __________.
torque
Which of the following terms refers to the elevation of the body's metabolism after exercise?
EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption)
An acceptable waist to hip ratio for females would be:
0.75
Which of the following muscles is probably underactive if a client's support or standing leg falls during a single-leg squat assessment?
Gluteus medius
If a client demonstrates an excessive forward lean during overhead-squat assessment, which of the following muscles should be stretched during the client's warm-up?
hip flexor complex
If a client presents with apparent poor posture, which of the following assessments is the MOST appropriate to evaluate any shoulder complex compensations?
pushing assessment, lateral view
Miguel is a 20-year-old client with a desired training intensity of 50% of his maximal heart rate. He has a resting heart rate of 35bpm. Calculate Miguel's target heart rate.
118bpm
During a pulling assessment, a personal trainer observes that a client's shoulders elevate. Which of the following muscles is most likely underactive?
lower trapezius
Upper crossed syndrome is characterized by:
a forward head and rounded shoulders
______________ is designed to assess dynamic flexibility, core strength, balance, and overall neuromuscular control.
Overhead squat assessment
Maximal heart rate formula
208 - (0.7xage) or 220-age
_______________ is the preferred method to measure maximal oxygen consumption.
The sub maximal exercise test
The Rockport Walk Test is used to determine which of the following?
estimated oxygen consumption
Working with arms overhead for long periods of time can lead to shoulder and neck soreness as a result of what?
tightness in upper trapezius
Which of the following muscles is underactive if a client demonstrates an anterior pelvic tilt?
Gluteus maximus
A client's head protrudes during a pulling assessment. Which of the following muscles should be stretched?
Sternocleidomastoid
During a training program, muscular endurance and stabilization adaptations are best developed with:
a rest interval of 0-90 seconds
A client has mastered a single leg squat on the floor. Which of the following is a proprioceptive and challenge progression?
two-leg squat on Dyna disc
Active-isolated stretching during the warm-up is an integral component in an exercise training program for a(n) _____.
strength level client
Identify a goal of Strength Endurance Training.
to increase overall work capacity
Which of the following ranges of perceived exertion on the Borg Scale would be implemented in a cardio training program for a client wanting to improve their aerobic base?
12 to 13
Which of the following is an appropriate intensity when training a client who is obese?
60 to 70% of their maximal heart rate
What percent of predicted heart rate maximum is used in Zone 2 of cardiorespiratory training?
76 to 85%
Which of the following is a myth associated with the cable pushdown exercise?
different aspects of the triceps are engaged by changing hand positions
What is the primary progression for the stabilization phase?
proprioception
Which of the following is an example of a Core-Stabilization level exercise?
two-leg floor bridge
Which of the following is a benefit of performing SMR after a workout?
It helps speed up recovery
______ is the process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds.
Static stretching
Which of the following is a difference between the soccer throw and the overhead medicine ball throw?
The overhead soccer throw requires rotation of the spine
The __________________ Stage occurs when individuals have zero temptation to engage in old behaviors.
Termination
In the context of coaching and communication strategies, which of the following is involved in motivational interviewing?
Empathizing with the client
In the context of influences of human behavior in exercise and eating situations, which of the following results from emotions?
Affective influence
The belief in one's ability to succeed in a specific situation is termed _______.
self-efficacy
An individual has a gym membership and visits sporadically, but not frequently enough to maintain a well-rounded exercise program. In which of the following sections of the Stages of Change model is this client?
Preparation
______ are activities that create opportunities for future sales.
Driver of sales
Which of the following represents a cross-functional team member?
Group fitness instructor
A key characteristic of a small group training facility is _____.
Numerous creative avenues of personal training and group training classes
____________ is the process of meeting and interacting with various stake holders.
Networking
Common clientele in a small group training facility ________.
enjoy the social environment with working out.
What is important to determine when forecasting?
Closing percentage
Golgi Tendon Organs (GTOs)
receptors sensitive to the change in tension of a muscle and the rate of that change

- if too much tension develops or the onset of tension is too rapid, GTOs will cause the muscle to relax
- GTOs signal the muscle to relax after about 30 seconds of tension/contraction
- think SMR (foam rolling)
Local Stabilization System Muscles
1. transversus abdominis
2. multifidis
3. internal oblique
4. diaphragm
5. pelvic floor muscles
Reciprocal Inhibition
contraction of an agonist muscle and the simultaneous relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement to take place

-----> Altered Reciprocal Inhibition: a short/tight agonist muscle decreases neural drive to its antagonist and the agonist's synergists take over (Synergistic Dominance)
Global Muscular System
1. Deep Longitudinal Subsystem
-----> walking (gait)

2. Posterior Oblique Subsystem
-----> walking (gait) and trunk stabilization

3. Anterior Oblique Subsystem
-----> rotational movements and leg swing/stabilization

4. Lateral Subsystem
-----> frontal plane stabilization
Force-couple Relationships
muscle groups working together to produce movement around a joint
Kinetic Chain
nervous + muscular + skeletal systems

Checkpoints:
1. foot + ankle
2. knee
3. LPHC
4. shoulder girdle
5. head/cervical spine
pattern overload
repetitive physical activity that moves through the same patterns of motion placing the same stresses on the body over time
Macronutrient intake
Carbs: 45-65%

Protein: 10-35%

Fat: 20-35%
catabolism
metabolic process that breaks down molecules
anabolism
metabolic process that builds molecules
metabolic pathway
a series of chemical reactions that break down or build up compounds in the body

1. ATP-PC: stored in the muscles and used for short bursts of energy in the absence of oxygen
2. Glycolysis: catabolic process that breaks down glucose to make ATP
Water recommendations
Men: 3.7 L all day
Women: 2.7 L all day

50 oz/kg of body weight lost after exercise
16-32 oz every hour of exercise
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
- How the kinetic chain responds and adapts to imposed demands
- How the body responds and adapts to stress

1. Alarm reaction: initial reaction to stressor,
2. Resistance development: increased functional capacity to adapt to stressor
3. Exhaustion: a prolonged intolerable stressor produces fatigue and leads to a breakdown in the system or injury
SAID (principle of specificity)
the type of exercise stimulus placed on the body will determine the expected physiological outcome
Autogenic inhibition
the process by which neural impulses that sense tensions are greater than the impulses that cause the muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle
Heart rate reserve (HRR) method (Karovonen Method)
establishing a training intensity based on the difference between a client's predicted maximal heart rate and his/her resting heart rate

[HR(max) - HR(rest) x Desired Intensity] + HR(rest)

**use 220-age to determine max HR
Borg Scale
rate of perceived exertion (RPE)

6 = no exertion at all
20= maximal exertion

12-14 = moderate intensity activity
Stretch-shortening cycle (integrated performance paradigm)
a forceful cycle of muscle contraction that involves eccentric loading of the muscle, isometric contraction, and concentric contraction
ancillary revenue
revenue beyond the sale of membership and services generated by the direct sale of products to customers
P's of Marketing
product
price
placement
promotion
Waist to Hip Measurements
waist/hip

for decreased health risks:

women: > 0.80
men: > 0.95
In the context of the force-velocity curve of a muscle action, the ability to develop force increases when the velocity of a(n) ________________ muscle action increases.
eccentric
lower crossed syndrome
anterior tilt to the pelvis and arched lower back
Davies Test
upper extremity agility and stabilization

-wide push up position, move hands to one another
Heart Rate Zones 1, 2, & 3
Zone 1
65-75% max

Zone 2
76-85% max

Zone 3
86-95% max
Rest periods
Endurance/Stabilization: 0-90 secs
Hypertrophy: 0-60 secs
Max Strength/Power: 3-5 minutes
Reps/Sets in Stabilization
1-3 sets of 12-20 reps for 1-2 exercises
Reps/Sets in Strength Endurance
2-4 sets of 8-12 reps for 1 strength exercise SS 1 stabilization exercise
Reps/Sets in Hypertrophy
3-5 sets of 6-12 reps for 2-4 exercises/body part
Reps/Sets in Maximal Strength
4-6 sets of 1-5 reps for 1-3 exercises
Reps/Sets in Power
3-5 sets of 1-5 reps (strength) and 8-10 reps (power) for 1 strength exercise SS 1 power exercise
Davis's law
soft tissue will align along the lines of stress that are placed upon it

- think SMR
SMART Goals
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Realistic
Timely
Metabolic syndrome
a cluster of conditions - increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels - that occur together and increase one's risk of health problems like heart disease, stroke, and diabetes