How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

88 terms

psychology & sociology

STUDY
PLAY
Ainsworth
Theory of attachment; infants ; strange situation test/model. secure/insecure
Asch
conformity experiment; required subjects to match lines
Bandura
social learning theory; learned aggression; Bobo doll experiment; social cognition
Binet
I. Q. tests; with Simon, Paris
Bouchard
studied identical twins separated at birth; Thomas
Chomsky
linguist; innate propensity to develop language; "deep structure"
Ebbinghaus
memory; nonsense syllables; forgetting curve and overlearning
Erikson
neo-freudian; stage theory of psychological development
Freud
austrian; founded psychoanalysis; unconscious independent of conscious; sex-drive; oedipus complex
Garcia
conditioned taste aversion; rats
Gilligan
feminist critique of Kolhberg's moral development theory; women's moral sense guided by relationships
Harlow
attachment in monkeys with artificial mothers
James
empiricist; founder of functionalism; use of perception; pragmatist; first psych text - The Principles of Psychology; "stream of consciousness"
Kagan
longitudinal studies on temperament (infancy to adolescence), theory children either inhibited or uninhibited, rejects attachment theory
Keys
semi-starvation experiments; psych effects of hunger
Kohlberg
moral stages of development theory; children
Loftus
memory construction and the misinformation effect; created doubts about accuracy of eye-witness testimony
Maslow
humanistic psychologist; "Hierarchy of Needs" ; "self-actualization"
Milgram
"shocking" (Ha!) experiments on obedience
Pavlov
classical conditioning; famous experiments with dogs
Piaget
theory of cognitive development in children; stage theory of intelligence; development stages
Rogers
humanistic psychologist; founded person-centered therapy, unique quality of humans esp. freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
Schachter
field of emotion; 2 factor theory-physiological happens first, cognitive appraisal made in order to experience emotion
Skinner
behaviorist; pioneer operant conditioning; learned response- determined by past history of rewards and punishments. skinner box -used to study reinforcement on pidgeons and rats; animal=human behavior
Thorndike
pioneer operant conditioning; concepts in intstrumental learning such as law of effect; cats in puzzle boxes; IQ tests
Watson
developed behaviorist thought (with Skinner); "Little Albert" experiments on fear conditioning
Benjamin Lee Whorf
famous for describing concept of "liguistic determinism"
Wundt
father of psychology, opened first psychology research lab in Leipzig; research on workings of senses; applied scientific method to psychology
Zimbardo
social psychology; proved behavior depends on roles asked to play; Stanford Prison Study-power of social roles to influence behavior, Built on Milgram
Selye
recurring response to stress; general adaptation syndrome
Horney
neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; criticized Freud, personality molded by current fears and impulses, social and cultural influences rather than childhood experiences and instincts; concept of "basic anxiety"
Jung
neo-Freudian, adopted ego/superego from Freud, disagreed on unconscious, proposed a collective unconscious; self realization; personality types
Seligman
field of learning; Positive Psychology, Dogs demonstrating learned helplessness
Perls
founder of Gestalt therapy
Adler
psychoanalyst, Neo-Freudian; "inferiority complex" and superiority" as unconscious drives; birth order
Ellis
Developed "rational emotive behavior therapy" (REBT)
Beck
pioneer in Cognitive Therapy. Suggested negative beliefs cause depression.
Allport
trait theory of personality; 3 levels of traits: cardinal, central, and secondary
Phineas Gage
survival of a horrible industrial accident taught us the role of the frontal lobes
Mischel
Critic of trait theory., Social-Cognitive Learning Theories; people's personality traits not consistent across all situations.
Kubler-Ross
wrote "On Death and Dying"; developed 5 stage theory of grief
Lorenz
Founded ethyology; studied instinctive behavior in animals, greylag geese and jackdaws; principle of imprinting
Aquinas
1225-75, St. Thomas; "5 ways", proofs for God
St. Ansehm of Cantebury
ontological argument for the existence of God
Aristotle
Platos student; criticized theory of forms; developed systematized logic
Benedict
anthropologist; patterns of culture
Augustine of Hippo
neo-platonist; 4-5 century
Berkeley
idealist, mental representations/impressions fundamental
Boaz
father of modern anthropology; scientific method
Descartes
rationalist; mind-body distinct; "I think therefore I am"; Cartesian Dualism
Cartesian Dualism
Separation of mind and matter, allowed something to be investigated independently by reason
Gall
anatomist/physiologist; study of nervous system, brain;founded phrenology
Galton
heredity IQ tests; Sir Francis
Geertz
anthropologist; symbolic anthropology; thoughts symbols.
Goffman
sociologist; social interaction
Hegel
idealist; teleology; theory of dialectic; synthesis of thesis and antithesis; teleological orientation (after Berkley)
Heidegger
influenced existentialism; "Being and Time"; phenomenology
Hume
empiricist; Scottish; induction
Husserl
father of phenomenology
Kant
idealist; categorical imperative; moral universalism; syllogism; 3 maxims "critique of reason"; free will; deductive reasoning- a priori; deontological ethics
Kierkegaard
founder existentialism; Danish; Soren
Leibnitz
rationalist; deduction; Descartes
Locke
empiricist; tabula rosa; important to age of enlightenment; Declaration of Independence; attacked Divine right of kings
Kohler
gestaltist; worked with chimps
Malinowski
anthropologist; groundwork in ethnographic fieldwork
Mill
empiricist; "Utilitarianism"; "Our Liberty"
Nietzche
existentialist; "Ubermensch" superman; not bound by right and wrong
Parsons
sociologist; developed Structural Functionalism
Occam
Occam's Razor=simpler explanations are preferable to complex ones; "parsimony"
Pascal
PENSEES: Known for his wager, Applied cartesian Dualism to Christianity
Patterson
American sociologist known for his work on race
classical conditioning
conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex
Pierce
philosopher; pragmatist
Plato
theory of forms; things are shadows of objects of knowledge which are universal; his writings- basis of western philosophy
Pythagorus
pre-socratic
Rousseau
romantic; philosopher of education; one leader of enlightenment; "The Social Contract'
Russel
founder of Analytic Philosophy; linguist; Pacifism; logic; epistemology; Bertrand
Ryle
critique of Cartesian Dualism; philosophy and language; logical positivist; vienna circle
vienna circle
A group of philosophers in Vienna during the early part of the twentieth century. They took the position that all that could not be verified was nonsense.
Satre
existentialist; "Being and Nothingness'; play "No Exit"
Strauss
anthropologist; "Structural Anthropology"; culture system of symbolic communication
Socrates
oral teachings transcribed by student Plato; Q + A teaching; hemlock
Titchener
structuralist
Wittgenstein
logical positivist; philosophy of language
Lewin
field theory of personality
Jung
analytic theory of personality
teleological
ethical theory concerned with outcome, whether an action produces greater good in the world
ontology
study of the nature of being, Parmenides