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The proximal convoluted tubule is lined with a

simple columnar epithelium with a large surface area

During prolonged fasting, the kidneys produce glucose from noncarbohydrate sources


Macula densa cells monitor the concentration of

sodium chloride in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule

How are the processes of re-absorption

Materials move in opposite directions: re-absorption moves materials into the blood, whereas secretion removes them from the blood.

Mesangial cells help keep the basement membrane clean by

engulfing macromolecules caught in its basement membrane

Nutrients such as glucose and amino acids within the tubular fluid

are completely reabsorbed

For glucose to be reabsorbed from the tubule lumen it is transported into the tubule cell by means of a

Na+/ glucose symporter

If there is an increase in systemic blood pressure, the resulting stretch of afferent arterioles results in reflexive

vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles to lower GFR normal

Immediately before blood enters arterioles of the kidney it travels through small arteries that project peripherally into the renal cortex. These arteries are the

interlobular arteries

From innermost to outermost, the protective layers on the kidney are the

fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, paranephric fat.

Sympathetic stimulation causes

granular cells to release renin, which ultimately leads to mesangial cell contraction

The paranephric fat is deep to the fibrous capsule of the kidney


In the filtration membrane were made more porous, how would you expet the glomerular filtration rate to change


Where in the urinary tract is transitional epithelium found

Ureters, urinary bladder, and prostatic urethra

The renal threshold of a substance refers to

the plasma concentration of the substance below which it does not appear in the urine

Proteins that are recaptured from tubular fluid are transported into the luminal membrane by way of


Stimulation of granular cells by sympathetic nervous system cause them to


fluid contained within a minor calyx is called urine


Substances that are both filtered and reabsorbed have a renal plasma clearance that is _____ the GFR

lower than

Generally, negatively charged plasma proteins are

repelled by the negative charge of filtration membrane

Which of the following choices lists structures in the order that urine flows through them

Minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis

Which layer is NOT found in the wall of the ureter


Normal urine has a specific gravity that is ____than the specific gravity of pure water; dehydration leads to a ____ in the specific gravity of urine

Higher, decrease


Another name for urination, is a reflex triggered by stretch receptors in the urinary bladder, requires the opening of two sphincters, requires contraction of the muscularis layer of the urinary bladder

the active transport of solutes out of the blood and into the tubular fluid is called

tubular secretion

Peritubular capillaries are associated with the convoluted tubules, while vasa recta are associated with the nephron loop


Which is NOT correct regarding the innervation of the kidney

Parasympathetic stimulation decreases the rate of filtrate formation

Renal plasma clearance

is the volume of plasma that can be entirely cleared of a substance in one minute

In order to accommodate the large liver

the right kidney is about 2 cm inferior to the left kidney

Dehydration results in

Increased ADH secretion and increased water reabsorption

As it is leaving the kidney blood passes directly from the arcuate vein to the

interlobar vein

Careful measurements of GFR are made by injection of _____, but approximations of GFR can be made more simply by measuring renal plasma clearance of ____.

insulin, creatinine

How are nephrons, collecting ducts, and collecting tubules related to each other

one nephron drains into one collecting tubule, and several collecting tubules empty into a collecting duct.

Net filtration pressure is equal o the

glomerular hydrostatic pressure minus the sum of the blood colloid osmotic pressure and capsular hydrostatic pressure

Which type of distal cell within kidney tubules and collecting ducts are responsive to aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone

Principal cells

The normal pH for urine

ranges between 4.5 and 8.0

ANP is a hormone that causes

Dilation of the afferent arterioles and inhibition of renin release.

The largest possible amount of a substance that can be reabsorbed or secreted across a kidney tubule wall in a given duration of time is known as the

transport maximum

The presence of proteins in the plasma tends to

draw fluid back into the glomerulus

The units for measurement of glomerular filtration rate are

liters per minute

the tubular pole of the renal corpuscle is where afferent and efferent arterioles attach to the glomerulus


which processes does urea undergo within the kidney

it is filtered and can be reabsorbed and secreted

Sympathetic nervous system influences on glomerular filtration rate are considered____ controls


Urine passes from a papillary duct into a

minor calyx, then to a major calyx, then to the renal pelvis

The main parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus are the

granular cells and macula densa

Put the portions of the male urethra in the correct order, from the urinary bladder to the exterior

Prostatic part, membranous part, spongy part, urethral orifice.

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