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Macula densa cells monitor the concentration of
sodium chloride in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule
How are the processes of re-absorption
Materials move in opposite directions: re-absorption moves materials into the blood, whereas secretion removes them from the blood.
Mesangial cells help keep the basement membrane clean by
engulfing macromolecules caught in its basement membrane
For glucose to be reabsorbed from the tubule lumen it is transported into the tubule cell by means of a
Na+/ glucose symporter
If there is an increase in systemic blood pressure, the resulting stretch of afferent arterioles results in reflexive
vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles to lower GFR normal
Immediately before blood enters arterioles of the kidney it travels through small arteries that project peripherally into the renal cortex. These arteries are the
From innermost to outermost, the protective layers on the kidney are the
fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, paranephric fat.
Sympathetic stimulation causes
granular cells to release renin, which ultimately leads to mesangial cell contraction
In the filtration membrane were made more porous, how would you expet the glomerular filtration rate to change
Where in the urinary tract is transitional epithelium found
Ureters, urinary bladder, and prostatic urethra
The renal threshold of a substance refers to
the plasma concentration of the substance below which it does not appear in the urine
Proteins that are recaptured from tubular fluid are transported into the luminal membrane by way of
Substances that are both filtered and reabsorbed have a renal plasma clearance that is _____ the GFR
Generally, negatively charged plasma proteins are
repelled by the negative charge of filtration membrane
Which of the following choices lists structures in the order that urine flows through them
Minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis
Normal urine has a specific gravity that is ____than the specific gravity of pure water; dehydration leads to a ____ in the specific gravity of urine
Another name for urination, is a reflex triggered by stretch receptors in the urinary bladder, requires the opening of two sphincters, requires contraction of the muscularis layer of the urinary bladder
the active transport of solutes out of the blood and into the tubular fluid is called
Peritubular capillaries are associated with the convoluted tubules, while vasa recta are associated with the nephron loop
Which is NOT correct regarding the innervation of the kidney
Parasympathetic stimulation decreases the rate of filtrate formation
Renal plasma clearance
is the volume of plasma that can be entirely cleared of a substance in one minute
Careful measurements of GFR are made by injection of _____, but approximations of GFR can be made more simply by measuring renal plasma clearance of ____.
How are nephrons, collecting ducts, and collecting tubules related to each other
one nephron drains into one collecting tubule, and several collecting tubules empty into a collecting duct.
Net filtration pressure is equal o the
glomerular hydrostatic pressure minus the sum of the blood colloid osmotic pressure and capsular hydrostatic pressure
Which type of distal cell within kidney tubules and collecting ducts are responsive to aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone
The largest possible amount of a substance that can be reabsorbed or secreted across a kidney tubule wall in a given duration of time is known as the
the tubular pole of the renal corpuscle is where afferent and efferent arterioles attach to the glomerulus
which processes does urea undergo within the kidney
it is filtered and can be reabsorbed and secreted
Sympathetic nervous system influences on glomerular filtration rate are considered____ controls
Urine passes from a papillary duct into a
minor calyx, then to a major calyx, then to the renal pelvis
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