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AP Language Concepts Summer Vocab List
Terms in this set (68)
Implied or suggested meaning of a word because of its association in the reader's mind.
Ex: Disabled, Crippled, Handicapped, Retarded --> Crippled, handicapped, and retarded have negative connotations and are no longer used because they are considered offensive.
Literal meaning of a word as defined.
Ex: The word "dog" has the denotation of a "four legged mammal etc" while its connotation is "a person, usually male, who is of foul character."
The author's choice of words that creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning.
Ex: Gettysburg Address --> Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, came to be regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history.
The grammatical arrangement of words in sentences.
Ex: "To your house we are going" would be an example of awkward syntax. You understand it, but it sounds odd. People who are learning a language might have problems with syntax.
If you mess with syntax, you can change the meaning:
The young man carries the lady.
The lady carries the young man.
The quality of something (an act or a piece of writing) that reveals the attitudes and presuppositions of the author.
Ex: "The general tone of articles appearing in the newspapers is that the government should withdraw."
Precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable.
Ex: Leaving nothing to implication; "explicit instructions"; "she made her wishes explicit"; "explicit sexual scenes"
Implied though not directly expressed.
Ex: inherent in the nature of something; "an implicit agreement not to raise the subject"; "there was implicit criticism in his voice"; "anger was implicit in the argument"; "the oak is implicit in the acorn"
To find out by reasoning; to arrive at a conclusion on the basis of thought; to hint, suggest, imply
synonyms: gather, deduce, presume, guess, speculate.
Ex: "We may reasonably infer that someone of importance was buried here."
The technique of arranging words, phrases, clauses, or larger structures by placing them side by side and making them similar in form.
Parallel structure may be as simple as listing two or three modifiers in a row to describe the same noun or verb; it may take the form of two or more of the same type of phrases (prepositional, participial, gerund, appositive) that modify the same noun or verb; it may also take the form of two or more subordinate clauses that modify the same noun or verb. Or, parallel structure may be a complex bend of singe-word, phrase, and clause parallelism all in the same sentence.
Ex: (from Churchill): "We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields."
A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. The independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect is to add emphasis and structural variety.
Ex: "Positive thinking, by helping us stay focused and maintaining a good attitude, is important for a happy life."
A sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases (main clause is at the beginning).
Ex: ""He dipped his hands in the bichloride solution and shook them--a quick shake, fingers down, like the fingers of a pianist above the keys." (Sinclair Lewis, Arrowsmith, 1925)
A sentence in which words, phrases, or clauses are set off against each other to emphasize a contrast
Ex: George Orwell-- "If thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought."
A sentence that has a phrase surrounded, following a comma and followed by a comma. It is called interrupted because that phrase interrupts the sentence and without it the sentence would still make sense, one in which the subordinate elements come in the middle, often set off by dashes.
Ex: These students - selfish, deceitful, and sadistic - were evidence of their parents' muddled values.
Ex: The teacher - what could he have been thinking? - gave all the students A's on the exam.
The presentation of two contrasting images. The ideas are balanced by phrase, clause, or paragraphs.
Ex: "To be or not to be . . ." "It was the best of times; it was the worst of times . . ." "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country . . ."
Reversing the customary (subject first, then verb, then complement) order of elements in a sentence or phrase; it is used effectively in many cases, such as posing a question:
Ex: "Are you going to the store?" Usually, the element that appears first is emphasized more than the subject.
Drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect.
Ex: "The operation of a computer presents an interesting analogy to the working of the brain"; "the models show by analogy how matter is built up"
A figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity.
Ex: Broken heart - Your heart is not literally broken into pieces; you just feel hurt and sad.
A figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as').
Ex: The bird was light as a feather.
False reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate.
Ex: "Once all gun-owners have registered their firearms, the government will know exactly from whom to confiscate them."
"If we legalize marijuana, next thing you know we're legalizing crack!"
A figure of speech in which someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it were alive and present and could reply.
Ex: "Are you there God? It's me, Mr. Smith."
A reference to something literary, mythological, or historical that the author assumes the reader will recognize.
Ex. "He was a real Romeo with the ladies." Romeo was a character in Shakespeare's play, Romeo and Juliet, and was very romantic in expressing his love for Juliet.
A figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor.
Ex. "I am so hungry I could eat a horse." or "I have a million things to do."
The opposite of exaggeration. It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended.
Ex: "It's a bit yellow" - while describing a very yellow canary.
The act of modifying or changing the strength of some idea.
Ex: "His new position involves a qualification of his party's platform."
(Logic) a self-contradiction.
EX. "'I always lie' is a paradox because if it is true it must be false."
A defamatory or abusive word or phrase
Ex: "Sticks and stones may break my bones but names can never hurt me."
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant.
Ex: Adult beverages instead of beer or liquor.
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects.
"All the world's a stage,
The men and women merely players;
They have their exits and entrances."
"As You Like It" by William Shakespeare
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part.
Ex: The word "bread" can be used to represent food in general or money (e.g. he is the breadwinner; music is my bread and butter).
Substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it.
Ex: "The pen [writing] is mightier than the sword [war/fighting]."
Use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse.
Ex: "Around the rock the ragged rascal ran"
A figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words.
Ex: buzz, hiss, hum.
Taking place within the mind and modified by individual bias
EX. "A subjective judgement"
Belonging to immediate experience of actual things or events.
Ex: "concrete benefits"; "a concrete example"; "there is no objective evidence of anything of the kind"
An expression that has been overused to the extent that its freshness has worn off.
Ex: "Walk a mile in another's shoes."
Witty language used to convey insults or scorn.
Ex: The movie Scary Movie, the movies of Austin Powers, the songs of Weird Al Yankovic
A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.
Ex: "Hundreds of WOP Vine videos by different people"
The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; or, incongruity between what is expected and what actually happens.
Ex: A man who is a traffic cop gets his license suspended for unpaid parking tickets.
A detail, image, or character type that occurs frequently in literature and myth and is thought to appeal in a universal way to the unconscious and to evoke a response.
Ex: The father: Stern, powerful, controlling
The mother: Feeding, nurturing, soothing
The child: Birth, beginnings, salvation
The hero: Rescuer, champion
The maiden: Purity, desire
Repetition of a word or phrase at the close of successive clauses.
Ex: "You said he was late - true enough. You said he was not prepared -true enough. You said he did not defend his statements - true enough".
Using several conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted
Ex: "He ran and jumped and laughed for joy"
When the conjunctions (such as "and" or "but") that would normally connect a string of words, phrases, or clauses are omitted from a sentence.
Ex. "He was a bag of bones, a floppy doll, a broken stick, a maniac." (Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957)
Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect).
Ex: Everything made of copper conducts electricity. (Premise)
This wire is made of copper. (Premise)
This wire will conduct electricity. (Conclusion)
Reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.
Ex: Robert is a teacher. All teachers are nice. Therefore, it can be assumed that Robert is nice.
The repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences.
Ex: "I needed a drink, I needed a lot of life insurance, I needed a vacation, I needed a home in the country. What I had was a coat, a hat and a gun." (Raymond Chandler, Farewell, My Lovely, 1940)
A concise statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance.
Ex: Science is organized knowledge. — Herbert Spencer
Lost time is never found again. — Benjamin Franklin
A witty saying expressing a single thought or observation.
Ex: "Little strokes/Fell great oaks." - Benjamin Franklin
"It comes once a year/But it fades with fear."- Harry Potter
Writing that attempts to prove the validity of a point of view or an idea by presenting reasoned arguments; persuasive writing is a form of argumentation.
Ex: "The argument over foreign aid goes on and on"
A three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise
Ex: "All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal."
An informal method of argument in which one of the major premises is implied or assumed rather than stated.
Ex: "With a name like Smucker's, it has to be good."
(slogan of Smucker's jams, jellies, and preserves)
A statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed
Ex: ("Susan walked in, and out rushed Mary.")
The omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced for the context
Ex: "Some people prefer cats; others, dogs."
Repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause.
Ex: "When I give, I give myself." (Walt Whitman)
Repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause.
Ex: "Rejoice in the Lord always: and again I say, Rejoice."
(The Bible, Phil. 4.4)
Repetition of words in successive clauses in reverse grammatical order
Ex: "You can take the boy out of the country, but you can't take the country out of the boy."
A sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined by one or more conjunctions.
Ex: "Han waited for the bus, and it arrived on time" and "You have waited very patiently; finally the day has arrived."
A complex sentence has one independent clause (sentence) and at least one dependent clause. A dependent clause has a subject and verb, but is not a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone. These two clauses are joined by a marker word, like: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.
Ex: "He went to the party after he did his chores."
A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
Ex. "Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with."
Relating to the mood of verbs that is used simple declarative statements
Ex: "I like cats."
A sentence that expresses a strong feeling. It ends with an exclamation mark. "!"
Ex: "You are an idiot!"
A sentence that asks a question. It ends in a question mark. "?"
Ex: "Are you going to eat that?"
Sentence used to command, enjoin, implore, or entreat.
Ex: "We're going into the attic now, folks. Keep your accessories with you at all times." (Buzz Lightyear, Toy Story 3, 2010)
Anything that precedes something similar in time
Ex: "Phrenology was an antecedent of modern neuroscience"
A longing for something past; homesickness.
Ex: "I wish we could play some Beatles records like grandma used to do right now."
Being twofold; a classification into two opposed parts or subclasses.
Ex: "The dichotomy between eastern and western culture"
Occurs when a new radical form of business enters the market that reshapes the way companies and organizations behave.
Ex: The advent of the cell phone.
Specify individually, count, list
Ex: "She enumerated the many obstacles she had encountered"; "The doctor recited the list of possible side effects of the drug"
The abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations.
Ex: The doctor made a careful analysis of each test results before determining his prognosis.
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