7 terms

Biology: Cell Division (Mitosis)

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Mitosis
A four-stage process that creates two identical cells from one original cell.
Prophase
The first and longest stage of mitosis. In this stage the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and move to opposite poles of the cell.
Prometaphase
Prometaphase is the second phase of mitosis, the process that separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells. During prometaphase, the physical barrier that encloses the nucleus, called the nuclear envelope, breaks down.
Metaphase
The second stage of mitosis. In this stage the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell and become connected to the spindle fiber at their centromere.
Anaphase
The third stage of mitosis. In this stage the sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are pulled apart.
Telophase
The fourth and last stage of mitosis. During this stage the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct rod-like shapes. Two new nuclear membranes then form around each of the two regions of DNA and the spindle fibers disappear.
Cytokinesis
The process that follows the last stage of mitosis. With two complete copies of the DNA now in two different regions of one cell, the cell membrane will pinch and divide the cytoplasm in half. The result is two individual cells that are identical to the original cell. Each of the two new cells have a complete copy of the DNA and contain all of the organelles that the original cell had.
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